THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
CEOS EO HANDBOOK – MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
Measurements > Land >
Multi-purpose imagery (land) >
Land surface imagery


Measurement Definition*: Level-1 product (not a geophysical parameter). High-resolution imagery covering wavelengths in the range 0.4-1 µm (cloud-affected) or 1-10 GHz (SAR, all-weather) - Accuracy expressed as Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial wavelength (twice the resolution). Actually [ MTF-1 ] is used, so that smaller figures correspond to better performance, as usual.
InstrumentStatus/
Accuracy
Instrument DescriptionMeasurement TechnologyTimeline
Advanced MI
Advanced Meteorological Imager
Operational
Continuous monitoring capability for the near real-time generation of high-resolution meteorological products and long-term change analysis of sea surface temperature and cloud coverage.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
AEISS
Advanced Electronic Image Scanning System
Operational
High resolution imager for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoring.High resolution optical imager
AEISS-A
Advanced Electronic Image Scanning System-A
Operational
High resolution imager for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoring.High resolution optical imager
AGRI
Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager
Operational
A multiple channel radiation imager, one of the primary instruments aboard FY-4. Technically featured by a precisely designed two-mirror structure, capable of accurate and flexible sensing in two dimensions, and minute-level fast sector scanning. Frequent Earth imaging over 14 bands with off-axis three reflections of the primary optic system. On-board black body available for IR calibrations at very short time intervals.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
ASTER
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer
Operational
Surface and cloud imaging with high spatial resolution, stereoscopic observation of local topography, cloud heights, volcanic plumes, and generation of local surface digital elevation maps. Surface temperature and emissivity. ASTER SWIR detectors are no longer functioning due to anomalously high SWIR detector temperatures. ASTER SWIR data acquired since April 2008 are not useable, and show saturation of values and severe striping. All attempts to bring the SWIR bands back to life have failed, and no further action is envisioned.High resolution optical imager
AVHRR/3
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/3
Operational
Measurements of land and sea surface temperature, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, soil moisture and vegetation indices. Data also used for volcanic eruption monitoring.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
AWiFS
Advanced Wide Field Sensor
Operational
Vegetation and crop monitoring, resource assessment (regional scale), forest mapping, land cover/ land use mapping, and change detection.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
CARBONITE-1 Imager
CARBONITE-1 Imager
Operational
High resolution optical imagery for land use monitoring, urban planning, crop monitoring and pollution monitoringHigh resolution optical imager
CARBONITE-2 Imager
CARBONITE-2 Imager
Operational
High resolution optical imagery for land use monitoring, urban planning, crop monitoring and pollution monitoringHigh resolution optical imager
C-Band SAR
C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Marine core services, land monitoring and emergency services. Monitoring sea ice zones and arctic environment. Surveillance of marine environment, monitoring land surface motion risks, mapping of land surfaces (forest, water and soil, agriculture), mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations.Imaging radar (SAR)
CCD (HJ)
CCD camera
Operational
Multispectral measurements of Earth's surface for natural enviroment and disaster applications.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
CHRIS
Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
Operational
Supports a range of land, ocean and atmospheric applications, including agricultural science, forestry, environmental science, atmospheric science and oceanography.High resolution optical imager
COSI
Corea SAR Instrument
Operational
SAR for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoring.Imaging radar (SAR)
C-SAR
C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use, urban studies.Imaging radar (SAR)
CZI
Coastal Zone Imager
Operational
Imagery of coastal regions - estuaries, tidal regions, etc.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
DESIS
DLR Earth Sensing Imaging Spectrometer
Operational
DESIS is a hyperspectral camera that records image data using an array of up to 240 closely spaced channels, covering the visible and near infrared portions of the spectrum (450 to 915 nanometres) with a ground resolution of approximately 90 metres. This multifaceted information allows scientists to detect changes in ecosystems and to make statements on the condition of forests and agricultural land.n/a
ETM+
Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus
Operational
Measures surface radiance and emittance, land cover state and change (eg vegetation type). Used as multi-purpose imagery for land applications.High resolution optical imager
Geoton-L1 (2)
Geoton-L1
Operational
Multispectral images of land surfaces and Oceans.High resolution optical imager
HiRI
High-Resolution Imager
Operational
Cartography, land use, risk, agriculture and forestry, civil planning and mapping, digital terrain models, defence.High resolution optical imager
HRC
High Resolution Camera
Operational
The objective is to demonstrate a high-resolution imager, primarily intended for technology, educational and general public information purposes.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
HRMX
High Resolution Multi Spectral
Operational
For crops and vegetation dynamics, natural resources census, disaster management and large scale mapping of themes.High resolution optical imager
HSI (HJ-1A)
Hyper Spectrum Imager
Operational
Hyperspectral measurements for environment and disaster management operations.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
IR (HJ-1B)
Infrared Camera
Operational
Infrared measurements for environment and natural disaster monitoring.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
IRS
Infrared scanner
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.n/a
IRS (SJ-9B)
Infrared scanner
Operational
 n/a
KMSS
Multispectral Imager (VIS) system
Operational
Multispectral images of land & sea surfaces and ice cover.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
LISS-III (Resourcesat)
Linear Imaging Self Scanner - III (Resourcesat)
Operational
Data used for vegetation type assessment, resource assessment, crop stress detection, crop production forecasting, forestry, land use and land cover change.High resolution optical imager
LISS-IV
Linear Imaging Self Scanner - IV
Operational
Vegetation monitoring, improved crop discrimination, crop yield, disaster monitoring and rapid assessment of natural resources.High resolution optical imager
MI
Meteorological Imager
Operational
Continuous monitoring capability for the near real-time generation of high-resolution meteorological products and long-term change analysis of sea surface temperature and cloud coverage.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MIRIS
Multi-purpose IR Imaging System
Operational
Mapping of the Galactic plane and measurement of large angular fluctuations of cosmic near infrared background radiation. Not an EO payload.n/a
MODIS
MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
Operational
Data on biological and physical processes on the surface of the Earth and in the lower atmosphere, and on global dynamics. Surface temperatures of land and ocean, chlorophyll fluorescence, land cover measurements, cloud cover (day and night).n/a
MS
Multispectral Imager
Operational
Vegetation and land cover, land cover change.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MS (GISTDA)
Multi spectral imager
Operational
THEOS MS consists of 4 spectral bands (R,G,B, NIR) with resolution 15 m and swath width at 90 km. The applications which are suitable for this instrument such as cartography, land use, land cover change management, agricultural and natural resources management, etc.High resolution optical imager
MS THEOS-2 (GISTDA)
Multi spectral imager THEOS-2
Operational
THEOS MS consists of 4 spectral bands (R,G,B, NIR) with resolution 15 m and swath width at 90 km. The applications which are suitable for this instrument such as cartography, land use, land cover change management, agricultural and natural resources management, etc.High resolution optical imager
MSC
Multi-Spectral Camera
Operational
High resolution imager for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoring.High resolution optical imager
MSI
Multi Spectral Imager
Operational
High resolution images with short observing cycle for commercial and scientific applications.High resolution optical imager
MSI (BJ-2)
Multispectral Imager
Operational
SSTL-300 S1 Imager also known as VHRI 100 (Very High Resolution Imager 100).High resolution optical imager
MSI (Sentinel-2)
Multi-Spectral Instrument (Sentinel-2)
Operational
Optical high spatial resolution imagery over land and coastal areas for GMES operational services.High resolution optical imager
MSS
Multispectral imaging system
Operational
Multispectral images of land & sea surfaces and ice cover.High resolution optical imager
MSU-MR
Low-resolution multispectral scanning imager-radiometer
Operational
Parameters of clouds, snow, ice and land cover, vegetation, surface temperature, fire detection.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MUX
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
MUX (GF-1)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
MUX (GF-2)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
MUX (SJ-9A)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
 High resolution optical imager
MUX (ZY-3-01)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
MUX (ZY-3-02)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
MWIR (GF-4)
Medium Wavelength Infrared Camera
Operational
Infrared measurements for environmental and natural disaster monitoring.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
NigeriaSat 2 Remote Sensing (Med and High Res)
NigeriaSat 2 Remote Sensing (Med and High Res)
Operational
High resolution images for monitoring of land surface and coastal processes and for agricultural, geological and hydrological applications.High resolution optical imager
NigeriaSat X Remote Sensing (Medium Resolution)
NigeriaSat X Remote Sensing (Medium Resolution)
Operational
High resolution images for monitoring of land surface and coastal processes and for agricultural, geological and hydrological applications.High resolution optical imager
OLCI
Ocean and Land Colour Imager
Operational
Marine and land services.n/a
OLI
Operational Land Imager
Operational
Measures surface radiance, land cover state and change (eg vegetation type). Used as multi-purpose imagery for land applications.High resolution optical imager
OV5682
OV5682
Operational
 Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
PALSAR-2 (ALOS-2)
Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2
Operational
Disaster Monitoring, Land monitoring, Agricultural Monitoring, Natural Resource Exploration, Global Forest Monitoring, Potential use and interferometry.Imaging radar (SAR)
PAN (BJ-2)
Panchromatic Imager
Operational
SSTL-300 S1 Imager also known as VHRI 100 (Very High Resolution Imager 100).High resolution optical imager
PAN (Cartosat-1)
Panchromatic Camera
Operational
High resolution stereo images for study of topography, urban areas, development of DTM, run-off models etc. Urban sprawl, forest cover/timber volume, land use change.High resolution optical imager
PAN (Cartosat-2)
Panchromatic Camera
Operational
High resolution stereo images for large scale (better than 1:0000) mapping applications, urban applications, GIS ingest.High resolution optical imager
PAN (Cartosat-2A/2B)
Panchromatic Camera
Operational
High resolution stereo images for large scale (better than 1:0000) mapping applications, urban applications, GIS ingest.High resolution optical imager
PAN (CBERS)
Panchromatic and Multispectral Imager
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use, urban studies.High resolution optical imager
PAN (GF-1)
Panchromatic and multispectral imager
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use, urban studies.High resolution optical imager
PAN (GF-2)
Panchromatic and multispectral imager
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use, urban studies.High resolution optical imager
PAN (GISTDA)
Panchromatic imager
Operational
THEOS PAN is an optical instrument with resolution 2 m and swath width at 22 km. It can be used in several applications such as cartography, land use planning and management, national security, etc.High resolution optical imager
PAN (SJ-9A)
Panchromatic and multispectral imager
Operational
 High resolution optical imager
PAN (ZY-1-02C)
Panchromatic and multispectral imager
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land useHigh resolution optical imager
PAN THEOS-2 (GISTDA)
Panchromatic imager THEOS-2
Operational
THEOS PAN is an optical instrument with resolution 2 m and swath width at 22 km. It can be used in several applications such as cartography, land use planning and management, national security, etc.High resolution optical imager
Paz SAR-X
X Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
High resolution X-band radar for security, land use, urban management, environmental monitoring, risk management. Different acquisition modes: Spotlight (5 x 5-10 km SSD =<1 m), Scansar (100 x 100 km, SSD <=15 m); Stripmode (strips of 30 x 30 km with SSD 3 m).Imaging radar (SAR)
PSS
Panchromatic imaging system
Operational
Panchromatic data for environmental monitoring, agriculture and forestry.High resolution optical imager
RASAT VIS Multispectral
RASAT VIS Multispectral camera
Operational
High resolution images for monitoring of land surface and coastal processes and for agricultural, geological and hydrological applications.High resolution optical imager
RASAT VIS Panchromatic
RASAR VIS Panchromatic camera
Operational
High resolution images for monitoring of land surface and coastal processes and for agricultural, geological and hydrological applications.High resolution optical imager
SAR (RADARSAT-2)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) C band
Operational
All-weather images of ocean, ice and land surfaces. Used for monitoring of coastal zones, polar ice, sea ice, sea state, geological features, vegetation and land surface processes.Imaging radar (SAR)
SAR (RISAT)
Synthetic Aperature Radiometer (RISAT)
Operational
Radar backscatter measurements of land, water and ocean surfaces for applications in soil moisture, crop applications (under cloud cover), terrain mapping, etc.Imaging radar (SAR)
SAR 2000
Synthetic Aperture Radar - 2000
Operational
All-weather images of ocean, land and ice for monitoring of land surface processes, ice, environmental monitoring, risk management, environmental resources, maritime management, Earth topographic mapping.Imaging radar (SAR)
SAR-L
L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Land, ocean, emergencies, soil moisture, interferometry, others.Imaging radar (SAR)
S-Band SAR
S-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Radar measurements for natural and disaster monitoring.Imaging radar (SAR)
S-band SAR
S-band SAR
Operational
SAR imagery for a range of applications including agriculture, maritime and forestryImaging radar (SAR)
SCAMP
SCAMP
Operational
 Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
SGLI
Second-generation Global Imager
Operational
Medium resolution multi-spectral imaging of land, ocean and atmosphere. SGLI-VNR is an optical sensor capable of multi-channel nadir observation at wavelengths from near-UV to NIR and forward or backward polarization observation at red and near infrared wavelengths (Push-broom scanning). SGLI-IRS is an optical sensor capable of multi-channel nadir observation at wavelengths from SWIR to TIR wavelengths (Cross-track scanning).n/a
SHMSA-SR
Medium resolution wide capture multispectral optical sensor
Operational
Land surface and ocean monitoringMulti-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
SHMSA-VR
High resolution wide capture multispectral optical sensor
Operational
Land surface and ocean monitoringMulti-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
SLIM-6-22
Surrey Linear Imager - 6 channel - 22m resolution
Operational
Visible and NIR imagery in support of disaster management - part of the Disaster Management constellation.High resolution optical imager
Vegetation
Vegetation
Operational
Global coverage every two days for uses including climate impact assessments, surface water resource management, agricultural monitoring, and food security estimates.n/a
VHRI-100
Very High Resolution Imager 100
Operational
High resolution optical imagery for land use monitoring, urban planning, crop monitoring and pollution monitoringHigh resolution optical imager
VIIRS
Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite
Operational
Global observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere parameters: cloud/weather imagery, sea-surface temperature, ocean colour, land surface vegetation indices.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
VIRR
Multispectral Visible and Infra-red Scan Radiometer (10 channels)
Operational
Multispectral Visible and Infra-red Scan Radiometer.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
VISSR-2
Stretched Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer-2
Operational
Meteorological.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
VNIR (GF-4)
Visible and Near-Infrared Camera
Operational
Infrared measurements for environmental and natural disaster monitoring.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
VSC
Venus Superspectral Camera
Operational
High resolution superspectral images (12 spectral bands) for vegetation and landcover applications.High resolution optical imager
WFI-2 (CBERS)
Wide Field Imager-2 (CBERS)
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use. WFI-2 (Amazonia-1) is the same instrument as WFI-2 (CBERS), however due differences in orbital altitude, they have different spatial resolutions.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
WFV
Wide Field View
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
X-Band SAR
X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
High resolution images for monitoring of land surface and coastal processes and for agricultural, geological and hydrological applications.Imaging radar (SAR)
AEISS-HR
Advanced Electronic Image Scanning System-High Resolution
Being developed
High resolution imager for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoringHigh resolution optical imager
ALISS III
Advanced LISS III
Being developed
For crops and vegetation dynamics, natural resources census, disaster management and large scale mapping of themes.High resolution optical imager
APAN
Advanced PAN
Being developed
High-resolution images for the study of topography, urban areas, development of DTM, run-off models etc., urban sprawl, forest cover/timber volume, land use change.High resolution optical imager
High Resolution Optical Sensor
High Resolution Optical Sensor
Being developed
Cartography, land use and planningHigh resolution optical imager
LISS-V
Linear Imaging Self Scanner-V
Being developed
Vegetation monitoring, improved crop discrimination, crop yield, disaster monitoring and rapid assessment of natural resources.High resolution optical imager
METimage
Multi Spectral Imager
Being developed
Operational multi spectral imager for meteorological EPS-SG VIS/IR Imaging Mission (VII): imagery data for global and regional NWP, NWC, and climate monitoringMulti-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MX (HRSAT)
Multispectral HR VNIR
Being developed
For crops and vegetation dynamics, natural resources census, disaster management and large scale mapping of themes.High resolution optical imager
OLI-2
Operational Land Imager-2
Being developed
Measures surface radiance, land cover state and change (e.g., vegetation type). Used as multi-purpose imagery for land applications.High resolution optical imager
PAN (Cartosat-3)
Panchromatic sensor
Being developed
High resolution images for study of topography, urban areas, development of DTM, run-off models etc. Urban sprawl, forest cover/timber volume, land use change.High resolution optical imager
PAN (HRSAT)
Panchromatic Camera
Being developed
High resolution stereo images for large scale mapping applicationsHigh resolution optical imager
PAN+MS (RGB+NIR)
Ingenio PAN+MS (RGB+NIR)
Being developed
High resolution multi–spectral land optical images for applications in cartography, land use, urban management, water management, agriculture and environmental monitoring, risk management and security.High resolution optical imager
SAR (RCM)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) C band
Being developed
All-weather, C-band data to support ecosystem monitoring, maritime surveillance and disaster management.Imaging radar (SAR)
CAR
High Resolution Camera
Approved
Panchromatic and multispectral (Vis/IR) measurements with high spatial resolution, with stereo capability for DEM generation. Applications in emergencies in general, agriculture, land use/land cover, change detection, urban environment, cartography, topography.High resolution optical imager
CSG SAR
COSMO-SkyMed di Seconda Generazione SAR
Approved
All-weather images of ocean, land and ice for monitoring of land surface processes, ice, environmental monitoring, risk management, environmental resources, maritime management, Earth topographic mapping.Imaging radar (SAR)
HSI
Hyperspectral Imager
Approved
Detailed monitoring and characterization of rock and soil targets, vegetation, inland and coastal waters on a global scale.High resolution optical imager
HYC
HYperspectral Camera
Approved
Hyperspectral data for complex land ecosystem studies.n/a
MVIRS
Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroradiometer
Approved
Measures surface temperature and cloud and ice cover. Used for snow and flood monitoring and surface temperature.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
OEK VR
Multispectral optoelectronic high resolution module
Approved
Multispectral images of land surfaces and Oceans.High resolution optical imager
WFI-2 (Amazonia-1)
Wide Field Imager-2 (Amazonia-1)
Approved
Used for fire extent detection measurement, coastal and vegetation monitoring, land cover and land use mapping. WFI-2 (Amazonia-1) is the same instrument as WFI-2 (CBERS), however due differences in orbital altitude, they have different spatial resolutionMulti-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
Advanced KMSS
Advanced Multispectral Imager (VIS)
Proposed
Multispectral images of land & sea surfaces and ice cover.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
Advanced MSU-MR
Advanced Multispectral scanning imager-radiometer
Proposed
Parameters of clouds, snow, ice and land cover, vegetation, surface temperature, fire detection.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
ALOS-4 SAR (L-band)
ALOS-4 SAR (L-band)
Proposed
 Imaging radar (SAR)
BIK-SD 1
High resolution wide capture multispectral infraredoptical sensor
Proposed
Provides a simultaneous taking of images of an object in several spectral bands of thermal range with detection and registration of land-based, subsurface-based and space-based objects.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
HRWS X-Band Digital Beamforming SAR
HRWS X-Band Digital Beamforming SAR
Proposed
High resolution images for monitoring of land surface and coastal processes and for agricultural, geological and hydrological applications.Imaging radar (SAR)
HYSI-SWIR
Hyperspectral SWIR
Proposed
Continuous monitoring of the earth and natural resources applications in hyperspectral SWIR bandsn/a
L-Band SAR
L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Proposed
Global observation of dynamic processes in the bio-, cryo-, geo- and hydrosphere.Imaging radar (SAR)
MUX (CBERS-4A)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Proposed
Agriculture; Forestry; Geology; Natural disaster management; Cartography; Environment monitoring; Fire detection, localization and counting; Hydrology, coastal water mapping; Land use; Surveillance and law enforcementMulti-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MX (Cartosat-3)
Multispectral VNIR
Proposed
High resolution land observation and cartography High resolution optical imager
SHMASR
Medium resolution wide capture multispectral optical sensor
Proposed
Land surface and ocean monitoringMulti-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
Visible imaging spectrometer (HyspIRI)
Visible imaging spectrometer (HyspIRI)
Proposed
 High resolution optical imager
WFI (CBERS-4A)
Wide Field Imager
Proposed
Agriculture; Forestry; Geology; Natural disaster management; Cartography; Environment monitoring; Fire detection, localization and counting; Hydrology, coastal water mapping; Land use; Surveillance and law enforcementMulti-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
WPM
Wide Swath Panchromatic and Multispectral Camera
Proposed
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use, urban studies.High resolution optical imager
WSAR
WSAR
Proposed
High resolution radar measurements of land and ocean features.Imaging radar (SAR)
* Description adapted from WMO.
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