THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
CEOS EO HANDBOOK – INSTRUMENT SUMMARY - C-Band SAR -
Full Name C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Status Operational
Instrument Agencies ESA Maturity
Instrument Type Imaging microwave radars Geometry Side-looking
Instrument Technology Imaging radar (SAR) Sampling Imaging
Data Access Open Access Data Format
Measurements and Applications Marine core services, land monitoring and emergency services. Monitoring sea ice zones and arctic environment. Surveillance of marine environment, monitoring land surface motion risks, mapping of land surfaces (forest, water and soil, agriculture), mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations.
Resolution Summary Strip mode: 9 m, Interferometric wide swath mode: 20 m, extra-wide swath mode: 50 m, wave mode: 50 m
[Best Resolution: 9m]
Swath Summary Strip mode: 80 km; Interferometric wide swath mode: 250 km, extra-wide swath mode: 400 km, Wave mode: sampled images of 20 x 20 km at 100 km intervals
[Max Swath: 400 km]
Accuracy Summary NESZ: -22 dB; PTAR: -25 dB; DTAR: -22 dB; Radiometric accuracy 1 dB (3 sigma); Radiometric stability: 0.5 dB (3 sigma)
Waveband Summary C-band: 5.405 GHz; HH, VV, HH+HV, VV+VH; Incidence angle: 20-45
MW (~1.0 cm - ~100 cm)
C-Band (8 - 4 GHz)
Instrument Measurements
CategoryParameterAccuracy
Landscape topographyLand surface topography 
Multi-purpose imagery (land)Land surface imagery 
Multi-purpose imagery (ocean)Ocean imagery and water leaving radiance 
Ocean surface windsWind speed over sea surface (horizontal) 
Wind vector over sea surface (horizontal) 
Ocean topography/currentsOcean surface currents (vector) 
Bathymetry3 [cm]
Ocean wave height and spectrumSignificant wave height 
Dominant wave period 
Dominant wave direction 
Sea ice cover, edge and thicknessSea-ice cover 
Sea-ice type 
Iceberg fractional cover 
Snow cover, edge and depthSnow cover 
Soil moistureSoil moisture at the surface 
VegetationVegetation type 
Instrument Missions
Sentinel-1 A - Sentinel-1 A (2014 - 2021)
Sentinel-1 B - Sentinel-1 B (2016 - 2023)
Sentinel-1 C - Sentinel-1 C (2021 - 2028)
Sentinel-1 D - Sentinel-1 D (2023 - 2030)
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