THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
CEOS EO HANDBOOK – MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
Measurements > Land >
Vegetation >
Land cover


Measurement Definition*: Processed from land surface imagery by assigning identified cluster(s) within a given area to specific classes of objects - Accuracy expressed as number of classes. Actually [ classes-1 ] is used, so that smaller figure corresponds to better performance, as usual.
InstrumentStatus/
Accuracy
Instrument DescriptionMeasurement TechnologyTimeline
BRLK
X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Land and sea surface monitoringImaging radar (SAR)
CHRIS
Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
Operational
Supports a range of land, ocean and atmospheric applications, including agricultural science, forestry, environmental science, atmospheric science and oceanography.High resolution optical imager
COMIS
COMpact Imaging Spectrometer
Operational
Land use assessmentsHigh resolution optical imager
COSI
Corea SAR Instrument
Operational
SAR for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoring.Imaging radar (SAR)
ETM+
Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus
Operational
Measures surface radiance and emittance, land cover state and change (eg vegetation type). Used as multi-purpose imagery for land applications.High resolution optical imager
GSA (1)
Hyperspectral imaging equipment
Operational
Land surface monitoringn/a
HiRI
High-Resolution Imager
Operational
Cartography, land use, risk, agriculture and forestry, civil planning and mapping, digital terrain models, defence.High resolution optical imager
MERSI-2
Improved Medium Resolution Spectral Imager
Operational
Measurement of vegetation indexes and ocean colour.n/a
MODIS
MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
Operational
Data on biological and physical processes on the surface of the Earth and in the lower atmosphere, and on global dynamics. Surface temperatures of land and ocean, chlorophyll fluorescence, land cover measurements, cloud cover (day and night).n/a
MS
Multispectral Imager
Operational
Vegetation and land cover, land cover change.n/a
MSI
Multi Spectral Imager
Operational
High resolution images with short observing cycle for commercial and scientific applications.High resolution optical imager
MSI (Sentinel-2)
Multi-Spectral Instrument (Sentinel-2)
Operational
Optical high spatial resolution imagery over land and coastal areas for GMES operational services.High resolution optical imager
OLCI
Ocean and Land Colour Imager
Operational
Marine and land services.n/a
OLI
Operational Land Imager
Operational
Measures surface radiance, land cover state and change (eg vegetation type). Used as multi-purpose imagery for land applications.High resolution optical imager
PAN (GF-1)
Panchromatic and multispectral imager
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use, urban studies.High resolution optical imager
PAN (GF-2)
Panchromatic and multispectral imager
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use, urban studies.High resolution optical imager
Paz SAR-X
X Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
High resolution X-band radar for security, land use, urban management, environmental monitoring, risk management. Different acquisition modes: Spotlight (5 x 5-10 km SSD =<1 m), Scansar (100 x 100 km, SSD <=15 m); Stripmode (strips of 30 x 30 km with SSD 3 m).Imaging radar (SAR)
PSS
Panchromatic imaging system
Operational
Panchromatic data for environmental monitoring, agriculture and forestry.High resolution optical imager
SAR (RADARSAT-2)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) C band
Operational
All-weather images of ocean, ice and land surfaces. Used for monitoring of coastal zones, polar ice, sea ice, sea state, geological features, vegetation and land surface processes.Imaging radar (SAR)
SAR 2000
Synthetic Aperture Radar - 2000
Operational
All-weather images of ocean, land and ice for monitoring of land surface processes, ice, environmental monitoring, risk management, environmental resources, maritime management, Earth topographic mapping.Imaging radar (SAR)
SAR-L
L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Land, ocean, emergencies, soil moisture, interferometry, others.Imaging radar (SAR)
S-band SAR
S-band SAR
Operational
SAR imagery for a range of applications including agriculture, maritime and forestryImaging radar (SAR)
SLIM-6-22
Surrey Linear Imager - 6 channel - 22m resolution
Operational
Visible and NIR imagery in support of disaster management - part of the Disaster Management constellation.High resolution optical imager
TIRS
Thermal Infrared Sensor
Operational
Measures surface emittance, lands cover state and change). Used as multipurpose imagery for land applications.n/a
Vegetation
Vegetation
Operational
Global coverage every two days for uses including climate impact assessments, surface water resource management, agricultural monitoring, and food security estimates.n/a
VIIRS
Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite
Operational
Global observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere parameters: cloud/weather imagery, sea-surface temperature, ocean colour, land surface vegetation indices.n/a
VNREDSat-1 MS
VNREDSat-1 Multispectral
Operational
The VNREDSat 1 multispectral instrument is designed for land cover measurements and applications.n/a
WFV
Wide Field View
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.n/a
LOTUSat SAR
LOTUSat SAR
Being developed
The LOTUSat 1 SAR instrument is designed for land cover measurements and applications.Imaging radar (SAR)
OLI-2
Operational Land Imager-2
Being developed
Measures surface radiance, land cover state and change (e.g., vegetation type). Used as multi-purpose imagery for land applications.High resolution optical imager
PAN+MS (RGB+NIR)
Ingenio PAN+MS (RGB+NIR)
Being developed
High resolution multi–spectral land optical images for applications in cartography, land use, urban management, water management, agriculture and environmental monitoring, risk management and security.High resolution optical imager
SAR (KOMPSAT-6)
SAR (KOMPSAT-6)
Being developed
High resolution imager for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoringImaging radar (SAR)
SAR (RCM)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) C band
Being developed
All-weather, C-band data to support ecosystem monitoring, maritime surveillance and disaster management.Imaging radar (SAR)
BRLK S-range
S-band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Approved
Disaster monitoring, sea surface monitoring, information support of environmental managmentImaging radar (SAR)
BRLK X-range
X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Approved
Disaster monitoring, sea surface monitoring, information support of environmental managmentImaging radar (SAR)
CAR
High Resolution Camera
Approved
Panchromatic and multispectral (Vis/IR) measurements with high spatial resolution, with stereo capability for DEM generation. Applications in emergencies in general, agriculture, land use/land cover, change detection, urban environment, cartography, topography.High resolution optical imager
CSG SAR
COSMO-SkyMed di Seconda Generazione SAR
Approved
All-weather images of ocean, land and ice for monitoring of land surface processes, ice, environmental monitoring, risk management, environmental resources, maritime management, Earth topographic mapping.Imaging radar (SAR)
GSA (2)
Hyperspectral imaging equipment
Approved
Land surface monitoringn/a
PAN CAMERA
Panchromatic Camera
Approved
Panchromatic data.High resolution optical imager
TIRS-2
Thermal Infrared Sensor - 2
Approved
Measures longwave thermal infrared surface emittance, land cover state and change. Used as multipurpose imagery for land applications. TIRS-2 will adhere to the Landsat 8 TIRS instrument performance specifications, but will be built to NASA Class-B instrument standards (including a 5-year design life).n/a
Advanced SAR
Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar X band
Proposed
High resolution microwave radar images for ice watch.Imaging radar (SAR)
HRMX-VNIR
High Resolution MX-VNIR
Proposed
Continuous monitoring of the earth and natural resources applications in Visible and VNIR bandsHigh resolution optical imager
MERSI-S
Improved Medium Resolution Spectral Imager - Simplified
Proposed
Measurement of vegetation indexes and ocean colour.n/a
Visible imaging spectrometer (HyspIRI)
Visible imaging spectrometer (HyspIRI)
Proposed
 High resolution optical imager
VNIR
Visible and Near Infra Red
Proposed
 n/a
MERSI
Medium Resolution Spectral Imager
No longer operational
Measurement of vegetation indexes and ocean colour. No longer operating due to lack of power.n/a
* Description adapted from WMO.
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