THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
CEOS EO HANDBOOK – MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
Measurements > Ocean >
Ocean surface winds >
Wind speed over sea surface (horizontal)


Measurement Definition*: Horizontal vector component (2D) of the 3D wind vector over the sea surface - Physical unit: [ m/s ] - Accuracy unit: [ m/s ] intended as vector error, i.e. the module of the vector difference between the observed vector and the true vector.
InstrumentStatus/
Accuracy
Instrument DescriptionMeasurement TechnologyTimeline
AltiKa
Ka-band Altimeter
Operational
Sea surface height.n/a
AMSR2
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer -2
Operational
+/-1.1 m/s
Measurements of water vapour, cloud liquid water, precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, soil moisture.n/a
AMSU-A
Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A
Operational
All-weather night-day temperature sounding to an altitude of 45 km.n/a
AMSU-A
Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A
Operational
All-weather night-day temperature sounding to an altitude of 45 km. AMSU-A on Aqua is still partially operational, with 9 of the 15 channels working and collecting data.n/a
ASCAT
Advanced Scatterometer
Operational
Measures wind speed and direction over ocean, soil moisture, sea ice cover, sea ice type, snow cover and snow parameters and vegetation parametersn/a
ATMS
Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder
Operational
Collects microwave radiance data that when combined with the CrIS data will permit calculation of atmospheric temperature and water vapour profiles.n/a
C-Band SAR
C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Marine core services, land monitoring and emergency services. Monitoring sea ice zones and arctic environment. Surveillance of marine environment, monitoring land surface motion risks, mapping of land surfaces (forest, water and soil, agriculture), mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations.n/a
DDMI (CYGNSS)
Delay Doppler Mapping Instrument (DDMI)
Operational
+/-2 m/s
Constellation of bistatic radar receivers using GPS satellite transmitters to detect ocean surface roughness and estimate near-surface wind speed from calm sea through hurricane force conditions and under all levels of precipitation.n/a
GMI
GPM Microwave Imager
Operational
Measures rainfall rates over oceans and land, combined rainfall structure and surface rainfall rates with associated latent heating. Used to produce three hour, daily, and monthly total rainfall maps over oceans and land.n/a
MADRAS
Microwave Analysis and Detection of Rain and Atmospheric Structures
Operational
To estimate rainfall, atmospheric water parameters and ocean surface winds in the equatorial belt.n/a
MTVZA-GY
Scanning microwave imager-sounder
Operational
Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, precipitation, sea-level wind speed, snow/ice coverage.n/a
MWRI
Micro-Wave Radiation Imager
Operational
All weather observations of precipitation, cloud features, vegetation, soil moisture sea ice, etc.n/a
POSEIDON-3B Altimeter
Positioning Ocean Solid Earth Ice Dynamics Orbiting Navigator (Single frequency solid state radar altimeter)
Operational
Nadir viewing sounding radar for provision of real-time high precision sea surface topography, ocean circulation and wave height data.n/a
Poseidon-4 Altimeter
Poseidon-4 SAR Radar Altimeter
Operational
Nadir viewing sounding radar for provision of real-time high-precision sea surface topography, ocean circulation and wave height data.n/a
RAD
Microwave radiometer
Operational
Ocean wind and temperature measurements.n/a
SAR (RADARSAT-2)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) C band
Operational
All-weather images of ocean, ice and land surfaces. Used for monitoring of coastal zones, polar ice, sea ice, sea state, geological features, vegetation and land surface processes.n/a
SAR (RCM)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) C band
Operational
All-weather, C-band data to support ecosystem monitoring, maritime surveillance and disaster management.n/a
SAR-L
L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Land, ocean, emergencies, soil moisture, interferometry, others.n/a
SCAT
Scatterometer
Operational
Monitoring global sea surface winds.n/a
SGR-ReSI-Z
Space GNSS Receiver - Remote Sensing Instrument - Z
Operational
Ocean winds, waves, soil moisture, flooding, ice, snown/a
SRAL
SAR Radar Altimeter
Operational
Marine and land services.n/a
SSM/I
Special Sensor Microwave Imager
Operational
Measures atmospheric, ocean and terrain microwave brightness temperatures to provide: sea surface winds, rain rates, cloud water, precipitation, soil moisture, ice edge, ice age.n/a
WindRAD
Wind Radar
Operational
Measures sea-surface wind.n/a
WindSat
WindSat
Operational
Demonstration of sea surface wind vector observation by polarimetric passive radiometryn/a
AMSR3
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer -3
Being developed
Measurements of water vapour, cloud liquid water, precipitation including snowfall, winds, sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, soil moisture.n/a
MWS
Microwave Sounder
Being developed
All-weather night-day temperature soundingn/a
SCA
SCA
Being developed
Measures wind speed and direction over ocean, soil moisture, sea ice cover, sea ice type, snow cover and snow parameters and vegetation parametersn/a
POSEIDON-3C Altimeter
Positioning Ocean Solid Earth Ice Dynamics Orbiting Navigator (Single frequency solid state radar altimeter)
Approved
Nadir viewing sounding radar for provision of real-time high precision sea surface topography, ocean circulation and wave height data.n/a
MTVZA-GY-MP
Advanced Scanning microwave imager-sounder
Proposed
Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, precipitation, sea-level wind speed, snow/ice coverage.n/a
AMSR-E
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS
No longer operational
+/-1.5 m/s
Measurements of water vapour, cloud liquid water, precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover and soil moisture. Instrument stopped functioning 4th October 2011.n/a
* Description adapted from WMO.
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