THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
CEOS EO HANDBOOK – MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
Measurements > Land >
Vegetation >
Vegetation type


Measurement Definition*: Result of the classification of different types of vegetation within a vegetated area - Accuracy expressed as number of classes. Actually [ classes-1 ] is used, so that smaller figure corresponds to better performance, as usual.
InstrumentStatus/
Accuracy
Instrument DescriptionMeasurement TechnologyTimeline
AEISS
Advanced Electronic Image Scanning System
Operational
High resolution imager for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoring.High resolution optical imager
AEISS-A
Advanced Electronic Image Scanning System-A
Operational
High resolution imager for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoring.High resolution optical imager
AWiFS
Advanced Wide Field Sensor
Operational
Vegetation and crop monitoring, resource assessment (regional scale), forest mapping, land cover/ land use mapping, and change detection.n/a
C-Band SAR
C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Marine core services, land monitoring and emergency services. Monitoring sea ice zones and arctic environment. Surveillance of marine environment, monitoring land surface motion risks, mapping of land surfaces (forest, water and soil, agriculture), mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations.Imaging radar (SAR)
CHRIS
Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
Operational
Supports a range of land, ocean and atmospheric applications, including agricultural science, forestry, environmental science, atmospheric science and oceanography.High resolution optical imager
ETM+
Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus
Operational
Measures surface radiance and emittance, land cover state and change (eg vegetation type). Used as multi-purpose imagery for land applications.High resolution optical imager
HRMX
High Resolution Multi Spectral
Operational
For crops and vegetation dynamics, natural resources census, disaster management and large scale mapping of themes.High resolution optical imager
HSI (HJ-1A)
Hyper Spectrum Imager
Operational
Hyperspectral measurements for environment and disaster management operations.n/a
LISS-III (Resourcesat)
Linear Imaging Self Scanner - III (Resourcesat)
Operational
Data used for vegetation type assessment, resource assessment, crop stress detection, crop production forecasting, forestry, land use and land cover change.High resolution optical imager
LISS-IV
Linear Imaging Self Scanner - IV
Operational
Vegetation monitoring, improved crop discrimination, crop yield, disaster monitoring and rapid assessment of natural resources.High resolution optical imager
MERSI-2
Improved Medium Resolution Spectral Imager
Operational
Measurement of vegetation indexes and ocean colour.n/a
MISR
Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer
Operational
Measurements of global surface albedo, aerosol and vegetation properties. Also provides multi-angle bidirectional data (1% angle-to-angle accuracy) for cloud cover and reflectances at the surface and aerosol opacities. Global and local modes.n/a
MODIS
MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
Operational
Data on biological and physical processes on the surface of the Earth and in the lower atmosphere, and on global dynamics. Surface temperatures of land and ocean, chlorophyll fluorescence, land cover measurements, cloud cover (day and night).n/a
MS
Multispectral Imager
Operational
Vegetation and land cover, land cover change.n/a
MS (GISTDA)
Multi spectral imager
Operational
THEOS MS consists of 4 spectral bands (R,G,B, NIR) with resolution 15 m and swath width at 90 km. The applications which are suitable for this instrument such as cartography, land use, land cover change management, agricultural and natural resources management, etc.High resolution optical imager
MS THEOS-2 (GISTDA)
Multi spectral imager THEOS-2
Operational
THEOS MS consists of 4 spectral bands (R,G,B, NIR) with resolution 15 m and swath width at 90 km. The applications which are suitable for this instrument such as cartography, land use, land cover change management, agricultural and natural resources management, etc.High resolution optical imager
MSC
Multi-Spectral Camera
Operational
High resolution imager for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoring.High resolution optical imager
MSI
Multi Spectral Imager
Operational
High resolution images with short observing cycle for commercial and scientific applications.High resolution optical imager
MSI (Sentinel-2)
Multi-Spectral Instrument (Sentinel-2)
Operational
Optical high spatial resolution imagery over land and coastal areas for GMES operational services.High resolution optical imager
MUX
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
MUX (GF-1)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
MUX (GF-2)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
MUX (ZY-3-01)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
MUX (ZY-3-02)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use.High resolution optical imager
OLCI
Ocean and Land Colour Imager
Operational
Marine and land services.n/a
OLI
Operational Land Imager
Operational
Measures surface radiance, land cover state and change (eg vegetation type). Used as multi-purpose imagery for land applications.High resolution optical imager
PALSAR-2 (ALOS-2)
Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2
Operational
Disaster Monitoring, Land monitoring, Agricultural Monitoring, Natural Resource Exploration, Global Forest Monitoring, Potential use and interferometry.Imaging radar (SAR)
PAN (CBERS)
Panchromatic and Multispectral Imager
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use, urban studies.High resolution optical imager
SAR (RADARSAT-2)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) C band
Operational
All-weather images of ocean, ice and land surfaces. Used for monitoring of coastal zones, polar ice, sea ice, sea state, geological features, vegetation and land surface processes.Imaging radar (SAR)
SAR (RISAT)
Synthetic Aperature Radiometer (RISAT)
Operational
Radar backscatter measurements of land, water and ocean surfaces for applications in soil moisture, crop applications (under cloud cover), terrain mapping, etc.Imaging radar (SAR)
SAR 2000
Synthetic Aperture Radar - 2000
Operational
All-weather images of ocean, land and ice for monitoring of land surface processes, ice, environmental monitoring, risk management, environmental resources, maritime management, Earth topographic mapping.Imaging radar (SAR)
SAR-L
L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
Land, ocean, emergencies, soil moisture, interferometry, others.Imaging radar (SAR)
S-band SAR
S-band SAR
Operational
SAR imagery for a range of applications including agriculture, maritime and forestryImaging radar (SAR)
SEVIRI
Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager
Operational
Measurements of cloud cover, cloud top height, precipitation, cloud motion, vegetation, radiation fluxes, convection, air mass analysis, cirrus cloud discrimination, tropopause monitoring, stability monitoring, total ozone and sea surface temperature.n/a
SGLI
Second-generation Global Imager
Operational
+/-20 %
Medium resolution multi-spectral imaging of land, ocean and atmosphere. SGLI-VNR is an optical sensor capable of multi-channel nadir observation at wavelengths from near-UV to NIR and forward or backward polarization observation at red and near infrared wavelengths (Push-broom scanning). SGLI-IRS is an optical sensor capable of multi-channel nadir observation at wavelengths from SWIR to TIR wavelengths (Cross-track scanning).n/a
SLIM-6-22
Surrey Linear Imager - 6 channel - 22m resolution
Operational
Visible and NIR imagery in support of disaster management - part of the Disaster Management constellation.High resolution optical imager
Vegetation
Vegetation
Operational
Global coverage every two days for uses including climate impact assessments, surface water resource management, agricultural monitoring, and food security estimates.n/a
VIIRS
Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite
Operational
Global observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere parameters: cloud/weather imagery, sea-surface temperature, ocean colour, land surface vegetation indices.n/a
VISSR-2
Stretched Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer-2
Operational
Meteorological.n/a
VSC
Venus Superspectral Camera
Operational
High resolution superspectral images (12 spectral bands) for vegetation and landcover applications.High resolution optical imager
WFI-2 (CBERS)
Wide Field Imager-2 (CBERS)
Operational
Earth resources, environmental monitoring, land use. WFI-2 (Amazonia-1) is the same instrument as WFI-2 (CBERS), however due differences in orbital altitude, they have different spatial resolutions.n/a
X-Band SAR
X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Operational
High resolution images for monitoring of land surface and coastal processes and for agricultural, geological and hydrological applications.Imaging radar (SAR)
AEISS-HR
Advanced Electronic Image Scanning System-High Resolution
Being developed
High resolution imager for land applications of cartography and disaster monitoringHigh resolution optical imager
ALISS III
Advanced LISS III
Being developed
For crops and vegetation dynamics, natural resources census, disaster management and large scale mapping of themes.High resolution optical imager
FCI
Flexible Combined Imager
Being developed
Measurements of cloud cover, cloud top height, precipitation, cloud motion, vegetation, radiation fluxes, convection, air mass analysis, cirrus cloud discrimination, tropopause monitoring, stability monitoring, total ozone and sea surface temperature.n/a
High Resolution Optical Sensor
High Resolution Optical Sensor
Being developed
Cartography, land use and planningHigh resolution optical imager
LISS-V
Linear Imaging Self Scanner-V
Being developed
Vegetation monitoring, improved crop discrimination, crop yield, disaster monitoring and rapid assessment of natural resources.High resolution optical imager
MX (HRSAT)
Multispectral HR VNIR
Being developed
For crops and vegetation dynamics, natural resources census, disaster management and large scale mapping of themes.High resolution optical imager
OLI-2
Operational Land Imager-2
Being developed
Measures surface radiance, land cover state and change (e.g., vegetation type). Used as multi-purpose imagery for land applications.High resolution optical imager
SAR (RCM)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) C band
Being developed
All-weather, C-band data to support ecosystem monitoring, maritime surveillance and disaster management.Imaging radar (SAR)
CAR
High Resolution Camera
Approved
Panchromatic and multispectral (Vis/IR) measurements with high spatial resolution, with stereo capability for DEM generation. Applications in emergencies in general, agriculture, land use/land cover, change detection, urban environment, cartography, topography.High resolution optical imager
HSI
Hyperspectral Imager
Approved
Detailed monitoring and characterization of rock and soil targets, vegetation, inland and coastal waters on a global scale.High resolution optical imager
HYC
HYperspectral Camera
Approved
Hyperspectral data for complex land ecosystem studies.n/a
WFI-2 (Amazonia-1)
Wide Field Imager-2 (Amazonia-1)
Approved
Used for fire extent detection measurement, coastal and vegetation monitoring, land cover and land use mapping. WFI-2 (Amazonia-1) is the same instrument as WFI-2 (CBERS), however due differences in orbital altitude, they have different spatial resolutionn/a
ALOS-4 SAR (L-band)
ALOS-4 SAR (L-band)
Proposed
 Imaging radar (SAR)
HRMX-VNIR
High Resolution MX-VNIR
Proposed
Continuous monitoring of the earth and natural resources applications in Visible and VNIR bandsHigh resolution optical imager
HYSI-VNIR
Hyperspectral VNIR
Proposed
Continuous monitoring of the earth and natural resources applications in hyperspectral VNIR bandsn/a
L-Band SAR
L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Proposed
Global observation of dynamic processes in the bio-, cryo-, geo- and hydrosphere.Imaging radar (SAR)
MERSI-S
Improved Medium Resolution Spectral Imager - Simplified
Proposed
Measurement of vegetation indexes and ocean colour.n/a
MUX (CBERS-4A)
Multispectral CCD Camera
Proposed
Agriculture; Forestry; Geology; Natural disaster management; Cartography; Environment monitoring; Fire detection, localization and counting; Hydrology, coastal water mapping; Land use; Surveillance and law enforcementn/a
MX (Cartosat-3)
Multispectral VNIR
Proposed
High resolution land observation and cartography High resolution optical imager
Visible imaging spectrometer (HyspIRI)
Visible imaging spectrometer (HyspIRI)
Proposed
 High resolution optical imager
VNIR
Visible and Near Infra Red
Proposed
 n/a
WFI (CBERS-4A)
Wide Field Imager
Proposed
Agriculture; Forestry; Geology; Natural disaster management; Cartography; Environment monitoring; Fire detection, localization and counting; Hydrology, coastal water mapping; Land use; Surveillance and law enforcementn/a
WSAR
WSAR
Proposed
High resolution radar measurements of land and ocean features.Imaging radar (SAR)
MERSI
Medium Resolution Spectral Imager
No longer operational
Measurement of vegetation indexes and ocean colour. No longer operating due to lack of power.n/a
* Description adapted from WMO.
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