CEOS Missions, Instruments and Measurements Database

Survey Table Definitions and Valid Values


The following survey response support documents are available.
  • Survey Guide - PDF
  • Table Definitions and Valid Values (this web page) - PDF
This page contains a listing of the table defintions and valid values for the CEOS Missions, Instruments and Measurements database update survey. Table definitions and valid values are available as follows.

Missions Table

A listing of each mission for which an agency is either leading or contributing to.

Field

Description

Mission

The short or abbreviated name for the mission.

Name

The full name for the mission.

Alternate Name(s)

Alternate names for the mission, i.e. pre-approval or public

Mission Instrument(s)

List the instruments(s) that the mission carries, comma separated.

Launch Date

The past, planned or proposed launch date for the mission.

EOL Date

The past, planned or projected end of life (EOL) date for the mission.

Status^

The current status of the mission.

Agency

The lead agency for the mission.

Cooperating Agency

The cooperating agency for the mission.

Objectives and Applications

A full text description of the objectives and applications of the mission.

Orbit Type^

The type of orbit the mission will employ.

Orbit Sense^

The sense that the mission orbit will be traveling in.

Period

The orbital period of the mission in minutes.

Altitude

The altitude of the orbit in km.

Inclination

The inclination of the orbit in degrees.

Longitude

The longitude of the orbit (if geostationary).

LST

The Local Solar Time (the time of satellite equator overpass) for the mission.

Repeat Cycle

The mission repeat cycle in days.

Mission URL

The mission website URL.

Data Site URL

The URL of any mission data access websites or portals.

CEOS MIM DB Mission Summary

The URL of the CEOS MIM DB online page for this mission.

^ - only certain valid values may be selected.

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Missions Valid Values

Field

Valid Values

Status

Nominal: Considered, Planned, Approved, Currently being flown, Mission complete

Other: Cancelled, N/A

Orbit Type

Sun-synchronous, Inclined non-sun-synchronous, Geostationary, Highly elliptical, Earth-Sun L-1, TBD

Orbit Sense

Ascending, Descending, N/A, TBD


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Instruments Table

A listing of each instrument to which an agency is either leading or contributing to.

Field

Description

Instrument

The short or abbreviated name of the instrument.

Name

The full name of the instrument.

Alternate Name(s)

Alternate names for the mission, i.e. pre-approval or public

Instrument Mission(s)

List the mission(s) that carry the instrument, comma separated.

Agency

The lead agency for the instrument.

Cooperating Agency

The cooperating agency for the instrument.

Type^

The type of the instrument (used for the tutorial pages in the EO Handbook).

Technology^

The technology of the instrument.

Status^

The current status of the instrument.

Data Access^

The instruments data access policy.

Data Format

A description of the data formats used for this instrument (NetCDF, etc.).

Measurement and Application Summary

A free text description of the instrument.

Geometry^

The instrument's geometry.

Sampling^

The instrument's sampling method.

Wave Band Summary

A free text description of the instrument wave band.

Resolution Summary

A free text description of the instrument resolution.

Best Resolution

The best resolution across all modes in metres.

Swath Summary

A free text description of the instrument swath.

Maximum Swath

The maximum swath width across all modes in kilometres.

Accuracy Summary

A free text description of the instrument accuracy.

CEOS MIM DB Instrument Summary

The URL of the CEOS MIM DB online page for this instrument.

^ - only certain valid values may be selected.

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Instruments Valid Values

Field

Valid Values

Type

See detail below

Technology

See detail below

Status

Nominal: TBD, Proposed, Approved, Being developed, Prototype, Operational, No longer operational

Other: No longer considered

Data Access

See detail below

Geometry

Conical scanning, Cross-track scanning, Earth disk scanning, Limb-scanning, Nadir-viewing, Occultation, Push-broom scanning, Side-looking, Steerable viewing, Whisk-broom scanning, TBD

Sampling

Imaging, Sounding, Other, TBD


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Instrument Type Valid Values

Valid Values: Instruments – Type

Atmospheric chemistry

Atmospheric temperature and humidity sounders

Cloud profile and rain radars

Communications

Data collection

Earth radiation budget radiometers

Gravity instruments

High resolution optical imagers

Hyperspectral imagers

Imaging microwave radars

Imaging multi-spectral radiometers (passive microwave)

Imaging multi-spectral radiometers (vis/IR)

Lidars

Lightning sensor

Magnetic field

Multiple direction/polarisation radiometers

Ocean colour instruments

Other

Precision orbit

Radar altimeters

Scatterometers

Space environment

TBD


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Instrument Technology Valid Values

Valid Values: Instruments – Technology (Click here for definitions))

Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer

Atmospheric lidar

Broad-band radiometer

Cloud and precipitation radar

Communications system

Data collection system

Doppler lidar

Electric field sensor

GNSS radio-occultation receiver

GNSS receiver

Gradiometer/accelerometer

High resolution optical imager

High-resolution nadir-scanning IR spectrometer

High-resolution nadir-scanning SW spectrometer

Imaging radar (SAR)

Laser retroreflector

Lidar altimeter

Lightning imager

Limb-scanning IR spectrometer

Limb-scanning MW spectrometer

Limb-scanning SW spectrometer

Magnetometer

Medium-resolution IR spectrometer

Medium-resolution spectro-radiometer

Multi-channel/direction/polarisation radiometer

Multi-purpose imaging MW radiometer

Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer

Narrow-band channel IR radiometer

Non-scanning MW radiometer

Radar altimeter

Radar scatterometer

Radio-positioning system

Satellite-to-satellite ranging system

Solar irradiance monitor

Space environment monitor

Star tracker


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Instruments Data Access Valid Values

Valid Values: Instruments - Data Access

                                  

Access

Description

Timeliness

Open Access

Data publicly available and utilised by user communities internationally.

Timeliness requirements of the user communities for data access are fully met.

Constrained Access

Some constraints to data access by the recognised user communities internationally.

Timeliness requirements of the user communities for data access are mostly met.

Very Constrained Access

Significant constraints to data access by the recognised user communities internationally.

Timeliness requirements of the user communities are not typically met.

No Access

No data access by the user communities internationally.


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Instruments Measurements Table

A listing of all measurements that a given instrument is capable of capturing, including a measurement utility assessment.

Field

Description

Instrument

The short or abbreviated name for the instrument.

Lead Agency

Agencies should only update or add measurement parameters for missions for which they are the lead agency.

Parameter^

The name of the parameter being measured by the instrument.

Utility^

An assessment of the utility of the instrument to measure the parameter specified.

Atmospheric Layers

The abiltiy of an instrument to measure applicable atmospheric parameters at various atmospheric layers (LT, HT, LS, HSnM, TC).

Click here for detailed definitions.

Accuracy

The accuracy (one sigma) of the instrument's measurement of the parameter indicated. The units for the accuracy in the "Accuracy Units" field.

Accuracy Units

The measurement units in which the accuracy is expressed.

^ - only certain valid values may be selected.

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Instruments Measurements Valid Values

Valid Values: Instruments Measurements - Parameter

ATMOSPHERE

Aerosol absorption optical depth (column)

Aerosol Extinction / Backscatter (profile)

Aerosol optical depth (column)

Aerosol effective radius (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - BrO (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - C2H2 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - C2H6 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - CFC-11 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - CFC-12 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - CH2O (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - CH3Br (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - CH4 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - CHOCHO (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - ClO (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - ClONO2 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - CO (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - CO2 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - COS profile

Atmospheric Chemistry - HCFC-22 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - HCl (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - HDO (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - HNO3 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - N2O (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - N2O5 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - NO (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - NO2 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - OClO (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - OH (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - PAN (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - PSC (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - SF6 (profile)

Atmospheric Chemistry - SO2 (profile)

Atmospheric pressure (over land surface)

Atmospheric pressure (over sea surface)

Atmospheric specific humidity (at surface)

Atmospheric specific humidity (profile)

Atmospheric stability index

Atmospheric temperature (at surface)

Atmospheric temperature (profile)

Height of the top of the Planetary Boundary Layer

Height of tropopause

Lightning detection

Ozone profile

Temperature of tropopause

Turbulence

Visibility

Volcanic ash

Water vapour imagery

Wind profile (horizontal)

Wind profile (vertical)

CLOUDS & PRECIPITATION

Cloud base height

Cloud cover

Cloud drop size (at cloud top)

Cloud ice (profile)

Cloud ice content (at cloud top)

Cloud ice effective radius (profile)

Cloud imagery

Cloud liquid water (profile)

Cloud mask

Cloud optical depth

Cloud top height

Cloud top temperature

Cloud type

Freezing level height

Lake Surface Height

Melting layer depth in clouds

Precipitation index (daily cumulative)

Precipitation Profile (liquid or solid)

Precipitation rate (liquid) at the surface

Precipitation rate (solid) at the surface

ICE & SNOW  STUDIES

Glacier cover

Glacier motion

Glacier topography

Ice sheet topography

Iceberg fractional cover

Iceberg height

Permafrost

Sea-ice cover

Sea-ice sheet topography

Sea-ice surface temperature

Sea-ice thickness

Sea-ice type

Snow albedo

Snow cover

Snow detection (mask)

Snow grain size

Snow melting status (wet/dry)

Snow surface temperature

Snow water equivalent

LAND SURFACE

Active Fire Detection

Bathymetry

Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Vegetation on Land

Fire area

Fire temperature

Fractionally absorbed PAR (FPAR)

Land cover

Land surface imagery

Land surface temperature

Land surface topography

Leaf Area Index (LAI)

Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI)

Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

Soil moisture at the surface

Soil moisture in the roots region

Soil type

Surface Coherent Change Detection

Vegetation Canopy (cover)

Vegetation Canopy (height)

Vegetation Cover

Vegetation type

OCEAN

Color dissolved organic matter (CDOM)

Diffuse attenuation coefficient (DAC)

Dominant wave direction

Dominant wave period

Ocean chlorophyll concentration

Ocean dynamic topography

Ocean imagery and water leaving radiance

Ocean salinity

Ocean surface currents (vector)

Ocean suspended sediment concentration

Oil spill cover

Sea level

Sea surface temperature

Significant wave height

Wave directional energy frequency spectrum

RADIATION BUDGET

Downwelling long-wave radiation at the Earth surface

Downwelling short-wave radiation at the Earth surface

Downwelling solar radiation at TOA

Earth surface albedo

Long-wave cloud emissivity

Long-wave Earth surface emissivity

Outgoing long-wave radiation at Earth surface

Outgoing long-wave radiation at TOA

Outgoing short-wave radiation at TOA

Outgoing spectral radiance at TOA

Short-wave cloud reflectance

Short-wave Earth surface bi-directional reflectance

SOLID EARTH

Crustal Motion

Crustal plates positioning

Geoid

Gravity field

Gravity gradients

Magnetic field (scalar)

Magnetic field (vector)

SPACE ENVIRONMENT

Electron density profile

Total electron content (TEC)

SURFACE WINDS

Wind speed over land surface (horizontal)

Wind speed over sea surface (horizontal)

Wind stress

Wind vector over land surface (horizontal)

Wind vector over sea surface (horizontal)



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Instruments Measurements Utility Values

Utility

Maturity

User Requirements

High Utility

Measurement techniques and instrument technologies proven with high heritage.

Meets all key requirements for a given measurement and is widely recognised or anticipated as a primary (or operational) source by the user communities.

General Utility

Measurement techniques/instrument heritage not fully mature but have expected utility for the future.

Meets most key requirements for a given measurement. Instrument recognised or anticipated as having some utility for the indicated measurement but not a primary source.

Potential Utility

Measurement techniques/instrument heritage not fully mature but have potential.

Meets some user requirements for a given measurement. Instrument is recognised as having potential utility for the indicated measurement.

Marginal Utility

Measurement techniques/instrument heritage not mature or are experimental.

Does not meet key user requirements for a given measurement. May provide some useful or complementary information under certain conditions for the indicated measurement. But is not not widely recognised or exploited internationally for its capabilities for this measurement.



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Instruments Measurements Atmospheric Layer Values

Atmospheric Layer

Description

Lower Troposphere (LT)

Instrument can measure the parameter at altitudes of 0 - 5500 m or pressures of 1000 - 500 hPa.

Higher Troposphere (HT)

Instrument can measure the parameter at altitudes of 5.5 - 16 km or pressures of 500 - 100 hPa.

Lower Stratosphere (LS)

Instrument can measure the parameter at altitudes of 16 - 32 km or pressures of 100 - 10 hPa.

Higher Stratosphere and Mesosphere (HSnM)

Instrument can measure the parameter at altitudes of > 32 km or pressures of < 10 hPa.

Total Column (TC)

Instrument provides a vertically integrated measrurement (i.e. for atmospheric constituents).


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Instruments Wavebands Table

A listing of all wavebands in which a given instrument takes measurements.

Field

Description

Instrument

The short or abbreviated name for the instrument.

Lead Agency

Agencies should only update or add measurement parameters for missions for which they are the lead agency.

Wave Band^

The waveband that is used by the instrument for sensing.

^ - only certain valid values may be selected.

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Instruments Wavebands Valid Values

Valid Values: Instruments Wavebands

                                  

UV

~0.01 µm  -  ~0.40 µm

VIS

~0.40 µm  -  ~0.75 µm

NIR

~0.75 µm  -  ~1.3 µm

SWIR

~1.3 µm  -  ~3.0 µm

MWIR

~3.0 µm  -  ~6.0 µm

TIR

~6.0 µm  -  ~15.0 µm

FIR

~15.0 µm  -  ~0.1 cm

MW

~1.0 cm  -  ~100 cm

Ka-Band

40 - 26.5 GHz

K-Band

26.5 - 18 GHz

Ku-Band

18 - 12.5 GHz

X-Band

12.5 - 8 GHz

C-Band

8 - 4 GHz

S-Band

4-2 GHz

L-Band

2 - 1 GHz

P-Band

0.999 - 0.2998 GHz

TBD, N/A

 


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Definition of Instruments> Technology Field Valid Values

Definitions of the Instrument technology valid values.

Valid Values: Instruments - Technology

                                  

Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer

Instrument designed to address more objectives by appropriate blending of the characteristics of spectral coverage and resolution, spatial resolution, radiometric accuracy, etc.. Spectral coverage in bands of Vis, NIR, SWIR, MWIR and TIR (0.4-15 µm). Number of channels from a few to a few tens, separated by dichroics and filters. Channel bandwidths around 10 %. Spatial resolution typically 30m - 3 km. Applicable in LEO and GEO.

High resolution optical imager

Imaging Vis/IR radiometer whose characteristics are stressed towards spatial resolution (typically <30 m). Spectral coverage in bands of  Vis and NIR (0.4-1.3 µm). Number of channels can be small (extreme: one, i.e. panchromatic) or very large (hyperspectral) separated in-field (array detectors) or by a spectrometer, or a combination of both. Channel bandwidths from 0.5 µm (PAN) to 5 nm (hyperspectral). Applicable only in LEO.

Multi-channel/direction/polarization radiometer

Imaging Vis/IR radiometer that addresses parameters observable by exploiting different viewing conditions (e.g., to convert radiances into irradiances), different polarisations (to reconstruct the electric field, i.e. the Stokes vector) and more channels (to collect more spectral signatures). A variety of configurations are possible. Multi-polarisation and multi-directionality are appropriate for short wavelengths. Channels bandwidths 2-5 %, spatial resolution typically 0.5-5 km. Applicable only in LEO.

Medium-resolution spectro-radiometer

Used when the number of channels is high and they are too close to be separated by dichroics and filters. The instrument spreads the radiation beam by means of a spectrometer, but thereafter only a limited number of channels is selected, that generally is re-programmable. Channels bandwidths 1-3 %, spatial resolution typically 0.5-5 km. Applicable in LEO and GEO.

High-resolution nadir-scanning SW spectrometer

Spectrometers to cover bands in UV, Vis, NIR and SWIR with spectral resolution typically of 0.1-0.3 %, required for atmospheric chemistry. Earth viewing so as to measure vertical profiles and total columns. Thousands of channels. Spatial resolution typically 2-20 km. Applicable in LEO and GEO.

Limb-scanning SW spectrometer

Spectrometers to cover bands in UV, Vis, NIR and SWIR with spectral resolution typically of 0.1-0.3 %, required for atmospheric chemistry. Designed to provide high vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and above by scanning the EarthÕs limb. Also, scanning may be performed during occultation of the sun or the moon or bright stars.  Thousands of channels. Spatial resolution typically 1-3 km vertical, 300-500 km horizontal. Applicable only in LEO.

Narrow-band channel IR radiometer

Radiometer operating in MWIR and TIR with many channels of bandwidth around 1 % in absorption bands of CO2 and H2O to retrieve temperature and humidity profiles in cloud-free or partially cloudy areas. Cross-nadir scanning for vertical profiling. A few tens of channels. Spatial resolution typically 10-20 km horizontal, ~ 2 km vertical (referred to the retrieved profile). Applicable in LEO and GEO.

Medium-resolution IR spectrometer

Spectrometer operating in MWIR and TIR with spectral resolution typically around 0.1 % to retrieve temperature and humidity profiles from absorption bands of CO2 and H2O in cloud-free or partially cloudy areas, and also total columns of some greenhouse gas species (and coarse profile of O3). Cross-nadir scanning for vertical profiling and total-columns. Many thousands of channels. Spatial resolution typically 10-20 km horizontal, ~ 1 km vertical (referred to the retrieved profile). Applicable in LEO and GEO.

High-resolution nadir-scanning IR spectrometer

Spectrometer operating in MWIR and TIR with spectral resolution typically around 0.01 % required for atmospheric chemistry. Earth viewing so as to measure vertical profiles and total columns in cloud-free or partially cloudy areas. Cross-nadir scanning for vertical profiling and total-columns. Many thousands of channels. Spatial resolution typically 5-10 km horizontal, ~ 1 km vertical (referred to the retrieved profiles). Applicable only in LEO.

Limb-scanning IR spectrometer

Spectrometer operating in MWIR and TIR with spectral resolution typically around 0.01 % required for atmospheric chemistry. Designed to provide high vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and above by scanning the EarthÕs limb. Many thousands of channels. Spatial resolution typically 1-3 km vertical, 300-500 km horizontal. Applicable only in LEO.

Multi-purpose imaging MW radiometer

Radiometer operating in bands of frequency ranging from 1 to 300 GHz. A specific instrument can only cover a limited part of the range, for instance from 7 to 200 GHz. Several parameters can be observed in this range, thus the instrument is designed by optimally blending the various features. For certain parameters very low frequencies are need (e.g., 1.4 GHz for ocean salinity and soil moisture in the roots region). Several channels, of bandwidths often constrained by frequency protection regulations. The basic channels operate in atmospheric windows, but in few cases absorption channels also are added. Conical scanning is the rule, which enables constant incidence angle, thus homogeneous polarisation conditions. If full polarisation is implemented, the instrument provides sea-surface wind vector. The resolution is diffraction-limited, thus for a given antenna (e.g., diameter 180 cm) changes with frequency (e.g., from 4 to 50 km moving frequency from 90 to 7 GHz). For very low frequencies, synthetic

Non-scanning MW radiometer

This MW radiometer has the limited purpose of supporting radar altimeter by providing information on total-column water vapour over the sea. The main channel is centred on the water vapour band at 23 GHz, with one or two windows around. The instrument only points nadir exactly as the radar altimeter, thus provides measurement only along track. The resolution is tuned to that one of the altimeter, typically around 25 km. Applicable only in LEO.

Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer

Radiometers operating in bands of absorption from O2 (typical, ~ 54 GHz) and from H2O (typical: ~ 183 GHz)  enable  measuring the atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles in nearly-all-weather conditions. Cross-nadir scanning is utilised, though also conical scanners use to include channels in absorption bands. Radiometric accuracy is a driver for profiling, thus scanning speed must be relatively slow, that implies coarse resolution (typical, 50 km for 54 GHZ, 15 km for 183 GHz, horizontal; the vertical, referring to the product, is ~ 2 km). Applicable in LEO; however by adding higher frequencies (e.g. 118 and 425 GHz for O2 and 380 GHz for H2O) sounding is also possible from GEO.

Limb-scanning MW spectrometer

Spectrometer operating in the millimetre-submillimetre range (30-3000 GHz) with spectral resolution typically around 0.01 % required for atmospheric chemistry. Designed to provide high vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and above by scanning the EarthÕs limb. Some thousands of channels. Spatial resolution typically 1-3 km vertical, 300-500 km horizontal. Applicable only in LEO.

Imaging radar (SAR)

If radar is used, the problem of diffraction-limited resolution in MW still applies. In this case, however, by analysing range, azimuth and Doppler effect of the (coherent) signals, synthetic aperture can be implemented, and resolutions typically of 10-30 m can be achieved. Several combinations of polarisations in transmission and reception can be implemented. Resolution can be traded-off with swath (e.g. 30 m / 100 km or 150 m / 400 km). Interferometry between views from different passes enable appreciating changes. SAR exploiting different bands (L, S, C, X) emphasise different features. Applicable only in LEO.

Lightning imager

Detector matrix all-time watching the earth in a very-narrow O2 band at 777.4 nm, to count the flash rate and intensity in the instantaneous field of view (5-10 km). Applicable in LEO and, better, in GEO.

Cloud and precipitation radar

Nadir-pointing radar to observe the profile of liquid and ice water in clouds. Depending on the frequency, the radar better observes liquid precipitation (~ 14 GHz), solid precipitation (~ 35 GHz) or non-precipitating clouds (~ 94 GHz). The antenna size is dimensioned for a ground resolution typically of ~ 5 km and the vertical resolution is 250-500 m. Pushbroom multi-feed provides limited swath (few 100Õs km for lower frequencies, basically zero at the highest frequency). Applicable only in LEO.

Radar scatterometer

Radar with very accurate calibration, to observe an earthÕs spot from several directions (ahead, after, aside) and measure differential backscatter coefficients (s0) from sea capillary waves (thus observing surface wind). On land, the s0 are correlated with soil moisture. Two concepts exist: electronic scanning, side looking, exploiting C-band (~ 5 GHz); and conical scanning, exploiting Ku-band (~ 13 GHz). The resolution is typically 25-50 km, the swath 1100-1500 km. Applicable only in LEO.

Radar altimeter

Nadir-viewing radar for very accurate ranging measurement between satellite and surface. The spread of echoes provides information on significant wave height, the intensity on the wind speed, the multi-temporal analysis the ocean dynamic topography and the geoid. The instantaneous field of view is ~ 25 km and moves along track. The radar altimeter operates in Ku-band (~ 13 GHz) with the support of C-band (~ 5 GHz) for correction from ionospheric rotation; and is associated to a nadir-pointing MW radiometer for water vapour correction. Applicable only in LEO.

GNSS receiver

Precision positioning system exploiting the differential phase of signals from a few satellites of the Global Navigation Satellite System. Applicable only in LEO.

GNSS radio-occultation receiver

GNSS receiver equipped with directional antennas to receive the signal from one of the GNSS satellites during occultation, and measure the phase, thus the bending angle and the refractivity index profile. Simultaneously, a companion GNSS receiver provides precision positioning. The refractivity index is associated to temperature, humidity and density. The vertical resolution of the product can be as good as 0.5 m, the horizontal resolution is conditioned by the limb geometry (~ 300 km). Applicable only in LEO.

Atmospheric lidar

Lidar measuring the backscattering of atmospheric components such as clouds and aerosol. One or two wavelengths can be exploited, in UV or Vis or NIR. Nadir-only, resolution typically ~ 100 m both horizontal and vertical. Applicable only in LEO.

Doppler lidar

Lidar measuring the Doppler shift of echoes from atmospheric components such as air molecules and aerosol. A UV wavelength is exploited, but other ones are possible. Side looking, measuring the radial component of wind in clear air. The resolution is controlled by sampling needs, and may be in the range of 100-200 km, aside of the orbital track. Applicable only in LEO.

Lidar altimeter

Altimeter that exploits lidar in order to detect polar ice edge with an accuracy of ~100 m instead of the 25 km of the radar altimetry. Designed to measure polar ice thickness and ultimately topography. Other observations common to atmospheric lidar also possible, such as vegetation canopy height. Applicable only in LEO.

Broad-band radiometer

Radiometer with channels that integrate the total radiation emerging from TOA (0.2-100 µm) and the fraction of reflected solar radiation (0.2-4.0 µm). Ancillary channels in atmospheric windows may be present. Capability of observing under more viewing directions so as to help converting radiances into irradiances may be present. Resolution in the range of 20-50 km. Applicable in LEO and GEO.

Solar irradiance monitor

Observes radiation coming from the Sun, either integrated (i.e., in the interval 0.2-10 µm, observed by cavity radiometers) or spectrally resolved (e.g., in the interval 0.2-2 µm, observed by a spectrometer), or for special features (X-rays, UV, etc,). Applicable in LEO and GEO.

Gradiometer/accelerometer

System designed to be sensitive to anomalies of the EarthÕs gravity field. Implemented in several modes by approprate networking of accelerometers, tensors, etc.). Applicable only in LEO.

Satellite-to-satellite ranging system

System to accurately measure the distance (e.g. by K-band, ~ 25 GHz) and its variations between satellites in coordinated orbits. Used to measured long-wave anomalies of the EarthÕs gravity filed. Applicable only in LEO.

Magnetometer

System designed to measure the EarthÕs magnetic field in its various components (scalar, vector). Applicable only in LEO.

Electric field sensor

System designed to measure the EarthÕs electric field. Applicable only in LEO.

Space environment monitor

Package of instruments mainly to measure the energy of charged particles hitting the platform, both integrated and spectrally analysed. A main purpose is to monitor the platform safety. Applicable in LEO and GEO.

Laser retroreflector

Mirrors (generally cube corners) to reflect laser beams sent to the satellite by ground laser-equipped sites during positioning sessions. Applicable only in LEO.

Radio-positioning system

System of transponders involving satellite and ground transmitting-receiving stations. Applicable only in LEO.

Star tracker

CCD imager that tracks bright stars, recognise the pattern and sends information to the satellite attitude control system. Applicable in LEO and GEO.

Data collection system

Transponder that relays to ground the data collected in situ by Data Collection Platforms. It might localise the DCP if mobile (only from LEO). It might retrieve the collected data after interrogation of the DPC. Applicable in LEO and GEO.

Communications system

To command and control the satellite, to transmit the data from the satellite to the ground, to transpond data from ground sites to other ground sites via satellite, etc.. It includes Search & Rescue by satellite. Applicable in LEO and GEO.


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