Measurements > Atmosphere >
Radiation budget >
Upwelling (Outgoing) spectral radiance at TOA

Measurement Definition*: Level-1 product. Spectral range 0.2-200 mm. Resolving power l/∆l = 1000. Accuracy quoted as SNR (Signal-to-Noise-Ratio), actually SNR-1 so that smaller figure means better performance, as usual. WMO and IOCCG quote accuracy in [ % ]
Instrument DescriptionMeasurement TechnologyTimeline
Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer
Measures tropospheric moisture and temperature, column integrated contents of ozone, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other minor gases which affect tropospheric chemistry. Also measures sea surface and land temperature.n/a
MSI (Sentinel-2)
Multi-Spectral Instrument (Sentinel-2)
Optical high spatial resolution imagery over land and coastal areas for GMES operational services.n/a
Hyperspectral imaging Spectrometer
Being developed
Pushbroom-type dual-prism Imaging Spectrometer with high radiometric accuracy and medium Signal-to-noise Ratio, operating from UV (320 nm) to SWIR (2400 nm) , based on a single MCT Detector/focal plane. The HIS aims at accurate spectral imaging on land and ocean for climatological background radiometric data acquistion and supporting cross-calibration with other stellites/sensors and on PICS/instrumented sites with highest resolution (50 m)n/a
HyperSpectral Instrument
Being developed
Pushbroom-type grating Imaging Spectrometer with high Signal-to-noise Ratio and data uniformity to derive quantitative surface characteristics supporting the monitoring, implementation and improvement of a range of policies in the domain of raw materials, agriculture, soils, food security, biodiversity, environmental degradation and hazards, inland and coastal waters, snow, forestry and the urban environmentn/a
Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer - New Generation
Being developed
Measures profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity, ozone, carbon monoxide, columns of methane, nitrous oxide, and other minor gases, and sea, ice, and land surface temperature and emissivity. Provides information on aeorols and cloud: fractional coverage, phase, cloud top height (input to Polar AMVs) and particle size. Prime applications: NWP, AC/AQ, climate. Secondary applications: NWC, land/ocean surface monitoring. IASI-NG will resume IASI role as internationl standard for satellite inter-calibration (GSICS).n/a
Infra-Red Sounder
Being developed
Measurements of vertically resolved clear sky atmospheric motion vectors, temperature and water vapour profiles.n/a
Being developed
5-year design mission. The mission focuses on understanding the flow of energy out of the planet and how it changes over time.n/a
* Description adapted from WMO.