THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
GLOBAL CLIMATE OBSERVING SYSTEM
IMPLEMENTATION STATUS ACTION SUMMARY

This page lists the status of Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Implementation Plan actions as summarised in the 2015 Status of the Global Observing System for Climate (GCOS-195). The actions are listed by domain and action number, and include the related ECVs. Filter by keyword (all fields), action status, ECV, and whether satellites make a significant contribution using the controls at the top of the table, and click the ECV links to view details.

indicates actions for which GCOS has determined satellite observations make a significant contribution.

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ECV*:
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*Only ECVs listed in the Satellite Supplement (GCOS-154) are listed.
Action
Status**
DescriptionECV(s)*
A1
Cat-C
Improve the availability of near real-time and historical GSN data. 
A2
Cat-C
Obtain further progress in the systematic international exchange of both hourly SYNOP reports and monthly CLIMAT reports from the WWW/GOS RBSN. 
A3
Cat-C
Ensure sustained operation of surface meteorological stations addressing national and sub-national needs, and implement additional stations where necessary; and exchange hourly SYNOP reports and monthly CLIMAT reports from all stations internationally. 
A4
Cat-C
Apply the GCMPs to all measurements relevant for climate from surface networks. 
A5
Cat-C
Implement guidelines and procedures for the transition from manual to automatic surface observing stations. Conduct expert review of the impact of increasing use of automatic stations on the surface climate data record. 
A6
Cat-D
Seek cooperation from organizations operating drifting buoy programmes to incorporate atmospheric pressure sensors as a matter of routine. 
A7
Cat-C
Submit all precipitation data, including hourly totals where possible and radar-derived precipitation products, from national networks to the International Data Centres. 
A8
Cat-B
Ensure continuity of satellite precipitation products.Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Wind speed and direction
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Precipitation
A8
Cat-B
Ensure continuity of satellite precipitation products.Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Wind speed and direction
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Precipitation
A8
Cat-B
Ensure continuity of satellite precipitation products.Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Wind speed and direction
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Precipitation
A8
Cat-B
Ensure continuity of satellite precipitation products.Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Wind speed and direction
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Precipitation
A9
Cat-C
Equip all buoys in the Ocean Reference Mooring Network with precipitation-measuring instruments. Who: Parties deploying moorings, in cooperation with JCOMM and OOPC. 
A10
Cat-B
Develop and implement improved methods for observing precipitation and deriving global precipitation products that take into account advances in technology and fulfil GCOS requirements. 
A11
Cat-B
Ensure continuous generation of wind-related products from AM and PM satellite scatterometers or equivalent observations.Atmospheric - Surface - Wind speed and direction
A12
Cat-B
Submit water vapour data from national networks to the International Data Centres. 
A13
Cat-D
Submit surface radiation data with quality indicators from national networks to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC), and expand deployment of net radiometers at WWW/GOS surface synoptic stations. Who: National Meteorological Services and others, in collaboration with the WRDC. 
A14
Cat-C
Ensure continued long-term operation of the BSRN and expand the network to obtain globally more representative coverage. Establish formal analysis infrastructure. 
A15
Cat-C
Improve operation of the GUAN, including infrastructure and data management. 
A16
Cat-B
Continue implementation of the GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network of high-quality radiosondes and other supporting observations, including operational requirements and data management, archiving and analysis. 
A17
Cat-A
Improve implementation of the WWW/GOS radiosonde network compatible with the GCMPs and provide data in full compliance with the BUFR coding convention. 
A18
Cat-D
Submit metadata records and inter-comparisons for radiosonde observations to International Data Centres. 
A19
Cat-E
Implement and evaluate a satellite climate calibration mission, e.g., CLARREO. Who: Space agencies (e.g., NOAA, NASA, etc).
A20
Cat-A
Ensure the continued derivation of MSU-like radiance data, and establish FCDRs from the high- resolution IR sounders, following the GCMPs.Atmospheric - Upper-air - Temperature
A21
Cat-B
Ensure the continuity of the constellation of GNSS RO satellites.Atmospheric - Upper-air - Temperature
A22
Cat-B
Finalise standard and implement exchange of data globally from the networks of ground-based GPS receivers. 
A22
Cat-B
Finalise standard and implement exchange of data globally from the networks of ground-based GPS receivers. 
A23
Cat-A
Continue the climate data record of visible and infrared radiances, e.g., from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, and include additional data streams as they become available; pursue reprocessing as a continuous activity taking into account lessons learnt from preceding research.Atmospheric - Upper-air - Cloud Properties
A24
Cat-A
Research to improve observations of the three-dimensional spatial and temporal distribution of cloud properties.Atmospheric - Upper-air - Cloud Properties
A25
Cat-B
Ensure continuation of Earth Radiation Budget observations, with at least one dedicated satellite mission operating at any one time.Atmospheric - Upper-air - Earth radiation budget
A26
Cat-D
Establish long-term limb-scanning satellite measurement of profiles of water vapour, ozone and other important species from the UT/LS up to 50 km.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Composition - Ozone
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
Atmospheric - Composition - Precursor species
A26
Cat-D
Establish long-term limb-scanning satellite measurement of profiles of water vapour, ozone and other important species from the UT/LS up to 50 km.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Composition - Ozone
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
Atmospheric - Composition - Precursor species
A26
Cat-D
Establish long-term limb-scanning satellite measurement of profiles of water vapour, ozone and other important species from the UT/LS up to 50 km.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Composition - Ozone
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
Atmospheric - Composition - Precursor species
A26
Cat-D
Establish long-term limb-scanning satellite measurement of profiles of water vapour, ozone and other important species from the UT/LS up to 50 km.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Composition - Ozone
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
Atmospheric - Composition - Precursor species
A26
Cat-D
Establish long-term limb-scanning satellite measurement of profiles of water vapour, ozone and other important species from the UT/LS up to 50 km.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Composition - Ozone
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
Atmospheric - Composition - Precursor species
A26
Cat-D
Establish long-term limb-scanning satellite measurement of profiles of water vapour, ozone and other important species from the UT/LS up to 50 km.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Composition - Ozone
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
Atmospheric - Composition - Precursor species
A26
Cat-D
Establish long-term limb-scanning satellite measurement of profiles of water vapour, ozone and other important species from the UT/LS up to 50 km.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Upper-air - Water Vapour
Atmospheric - Surface - Water vapour
Atmospheric - Composition - Ozone
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
Atmospheric - Composition - Precursor species
A27
Cat-B
Establish a network of ground stations (MAXDOAS, lidar, FTIR) capable of validating satellite remote sensing of the troposphere.Atmospheric - Composition - Precursor species
A28
Cat-C
Maintain and enhance the WMO GAW Global Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Monitoring Networks as major contributions to the GCOS Comprehensive Networks for CO2 and CH4.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
A28
Cat-C
Maintain and enhance the WMO GAW Global Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Monitoring Networks as major contributions to the GCOS Comprehensive Networks for CO2 and CH4.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
A28
Cat-C
Maintain and enhance the WMO GAW Global Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Monitoring Networks as major contributions to the GCOS Comprehensive Networks for CO2 and CH4.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
A29
Cat-A
Assess the value of the data provided by current space-based measurements of CO2 and CH4, and develop and implement proposals for follow-on missions accordingly.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
A29
Cat-A
Assess the value of the data provided by current space-based measurements of CO2 and CH4, and develop and implement proposals for follow-on missions accordingly.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
A29
Cat-A
Assess the value of the data provided by current space-based measurements of CO2 and CH4, and develop and implement proposals for follow-on missions accordingly.Atmospheric - Composition - Methane
Atmospheric - Composition - Other long-lived greenhouse gases
Atmospheric - Composition - Carbon dioxide
A30
Cat-B
Maintain networks for halocarbon and N2O and SF6 measurements. 
A31
Cat-E
Maintain the quality of the GCOS Global Baseline (Profile and Total) Ozone Networks coordinated by the WMO GAW and seek to increase coverage in the Tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Improve timeliness of provision of data to users and promote adoption of a single code standard. 
A32
Cat-B
Continue production of satellite ozone data records (column, tropospheric ozone and ozone profiles) suitable for studies of interannual variability and trend analysis. Reconcile residual differences between ozone datasets produced by different satellite systems.Atmospheric - Composition - Ozone
A33
Cat-D
Develop and implement a coordinated strategy to monitor and analyse the distribution of aerosols and aerosol properties. The strategy should address the definition of a GCOS baseline network or networks for in situ measurements, assess the needs and capabilities for operational and research satellite missions for the next two decades, and propose arrangements for coordinated mission planning. Atmospheric - Composition - Aerosol
A34
Cat-B
Ensure continuity of products based on space-based measurement of the precursors (NO2, SO2, HCHO and CO in particular) of ozone and aerosols and derive consistent emission databases, seeking to improve temporal and spatial resolution.Atmospheric - Composition - Precursor species
O1
Cat-C
Analyse the ocean section of national reports on systematic observation for climate to the UNFCCC, and encourage non-Annex-I Parties to contribute reports. 
O2
Cat-D
Establish prioritized national and regional plans that address the needs to monitor the coastal regions and support adaptation and understanding of vulnerabilities. 
O3
Cat-C
Improve number and quality of climate-relevant marine surface observations from the VOS. Improve metadata acquisition and management for as many VOS as possible through VOSClim, together with improved measurement systems. 
O4
Cat-C
Ensure coordination of contributions to CEOS Virtual Constellations for each ocean surface ECV, in relation to in situ ocean observing systems.Oceanic - Surface - Sea-surface temperature (SST)
O5
Cat-C
Complete and maintain a globally-distributed network of 30-40 surface moorings as part of the OceanSITES Reference Mooring Network. 
O6
Cat-B
Develop and deploy a ship-based reference network of robust autonomous in situ instrumentation for biogeochemical and ecosystem variables. 
O7
Cat-B
Continue the provision of best possible SST fields based on a continuous coverage-mix of polar orbiting IR and geostationary IR measurements, combined with passive microwave coverage, and appropriate linkage with the comprehensive in situ networks noted in O8.Oceanic - Surface - Sea-surface temperature (SST)
O8
Cat-D
Sustain global coverage of the drifting buoy array (total array of 1250 drifting buoys equipped with ocean temperature sensors), obtain global coverage of atmospheric pressure sensors on the drifting buoys, and obtain improved ocean temperature from an enhanced VOS effort. 
O9
Cat-C
Implement the GLOSS Core Network of about 300 tide gauges, with geocentrically-located high- accuracy gauges; ensure continuous acquisition, real-time exchange and archiving of high-frequency data; put all regional and local tide gauge measurements within the same global geodetic reference system; ensure historical sea-level records are recovered and exchanged; include sea-level objectives in the capacity-building programmes of GOOS, JCOMM, WMO, other related bodies, and the GCOS system improvement programme.  
O10
Cat-B
Ensure continuous coverage from one higher-precision, medium-inclination altimeter and two medium-precision, higher-inclination altimeters.Oceanic - Surface - Sea level
O11
Cat-C
Implement a programme to observe sea-surface salinity to include Argo profiling floats, surface drifting buoys, SOOP ships, tropical moorings, reference moorings, and research ships. 
O12
Cat-B
Research programmes should investigate the feasibility of utilizing satellite data to help resolve global fields of SSS.Oceanic - Surface - Sea-surface salinity (SSS)
O13
Cat-B
Develop and implement an internationally-agreed strategy for measuring surface pCO2. 
O14
Cat-A
Develop instrumentation for the autonomous measurement of either DIC, Alk, or pH with high accuracy and precision. 
O15
Cat-C
Implement continuity of ocean colour radiance datasets through the plan for an Ocean Colour Radiometry Virtual Constellation.Oceanic - Surface - Ocean colour
O16
Cat-D
Implement a wave measurement component as part of the Surface Reference Mooring Network. Who: Parties operating moorings, coordinated through the JCOMM Expert Team on Waves and Surges. Time-Frame: Deployed by 2014. 
O17
Cat-D
Establish an international group to assemble surface drifting buoy motion data, ship drift current estimates, current estimates based on wind stress and surface topography fields; prepare an integrated analysis of the surface current field. 
O18
Cat-C
Plan, establish and sustain systematic in situ observations from sea-ice buoys, visual surveys (SOOP and Aircraft), and ULS in the Arctic and Antarctic. 
O19
Cat-B
Ensure sustained satellite-based (microwave, SAR, visible and IR) sea-ice products.Oceanic - Surface - Sea ice
O20
Cat-C
Document the status of global sea-ice analysis and reanalysis product uncertainty (via a quantitative summary comparison of sea-ice products) and to prepare a plan to improve the products.Oceanic - Surface - Sea ice
O21
Cat-A
Establish plan for, and implement, global Continuous Plankton Recorder surveys. 
O22
Cat-C
Develop technology for underway plankton survey capabilities. 
O23
Cat-D
Establish a global network of long-term observation sites covering all major ocean habitats and encourage collocation of physical, biological and ecological measurements. 
O24
Cat-B
Development of a plan for systematic global full-depth water column sampling for ocean physical and carbon variables in the coming decade; implementation of that plan. 
O25
Cat-D
Sustain the Ship-of-Opportunity XBT/XCTD transoceanic network of about 40 sections. Who: Parties’ national agencies, coordinated through the Ship Observations Team of JCOMM. Time-Frame: Continuing. 
O26
Cat-A
Sustain the network of about 3000 Argo global profiling floats, reseeding the network with replacement floats to fill gaps, and maintain density (about 800 per year). 
O27
Cat-E
Complete implementation of the current Tropical Moored Buoy, a total network of about 120 moorings. 
O28
Cat-C
Develop projects designed to assemble the in situ and satellite data into a composite reference reanalysis dataset, and to sustain projects to assimilate the data into models in ocean reanalysis projects. Who: Parties’ national ocean research programmes and space supported by WCRP.
O29
Cat-A
Work with research programmes to develop autonomous capability for biogeochemical and ecological variables, for deployment on OceanSITES and in other pilot project reference sites. 
O30
Cat-A
Deploy a global pilot project of oxygen sensors on profiling floats. 
O31
Cat-D
Monitoring the implementation of the IOC Data Policy. 
O32
Cat-C
Develop and implement comprehensive ocean data management procedures, building on the experience of the JCOMM Pilot Project for WIGOS. 
O33
Cat-D
Undertake a project to develop an international standard for ocean metadata. 
O34
Cat-D
Undertake a project to apply the innovations emerging from the WMO Information System, and innovations such as OPeNDAP to develop an ocean data transport system for data exchange between centres and for open use by the ocean community generally. 
O35
Cat-E
Plan and implement a system of regional, specialized and global data and analysis centres for each ocean ECV. 
O36
Cat-D
Support data rescue projects. 
O37
Cat-B
Develop enhanced and more cost-effective telecommunication capabilities, including two-way communications for dynamic control of systems, instruments and sensors. 
O38
Cat-C
Develop plans for, and coordinate work on, data assembly and analyses. 
O39
Cat-B
Develop plans and pilot projects for the production of global products based on data assimilation into models. All possible ECVs. 
O40
Cat-A
Undertake pilot projects of reanalysis of ocean data. 
O41
Cat-B
Promote and facilitate research and development (new improved technologies in particular), in support of the global ocean observing system for climate.
T1
Cat-E
Ensure the development of observational standards and protocols for the each of the terrestrial ECVs; promote adoption of standards on a national level. 
T2
Cat-C
Achieve national recognition of the need to exchange hydrological data of all networks encompassed by GTN-H, in particular the GCOS/GTOS baseline networks, and facilitate the development of integrated hydrological products to demonstrate the value of these coordinated and sustained global hydrological networks.  
T3
Cat-D
Development of a subset of current LTER and FLUXNET sites into a global terrestrial reference network for monitoring sites with sustained funding perspective, and collocated measurements of meteorological ECVs; seek linkage with Actions T4 and T29 as appropriate. 
T3
Cat-D
Development of a subset of current LTER and FLUXNET sites into a global terrestrial reference network for monitoring sites with sustained funding perspective, and collocated measurements of meteorological ECVs; seek linkage with Actions T4 and T29 as appropriate. 
T3
Cat-D
Development of a subset of current LTER and FLUXNET sites into a global terrestrial reference network for monitoring sites with sustained funding perspective, and collocated measurements of meteorological ECVs; seek linkage with Actions T4 and T29 as appropriate. 
T4
Cat-E
Initiate an ecosystem monitoring network acquiring “Essential Ecosystem Records” (see section 3.8), by exploiting collocation opportunities with the global terrestrial reference network (Action T3) and the network of validation sites (T29). 
T5
Cat-B
Develop an experimental evaporation product from existing networks and satellite observations.
T6
Cat-C
Confirm locations of GTN-R sites, determine operational status of gauges at all GTN-R sites, and ensure that the GRDC receive daily river discharge data from all priority reference sites within one year of their observation (including measurement and data transmission technology used). 
T7
Cat-C
Assess national needs for river gauges in support of impact assessments and adaptation, and consider the adequacy of those networks. 
T8
Cat-C
Submit weekly/monthly lake level/area data to the International Data Centre; submit weekly/monthly altimeter-derived lake levels by space agencies to HYDROLARE.Terrestrial - Lakes
T9
Cat-C
Submit weekly/monthly lake level and area data measured during the 19th and 20th centuries for the GTN-L lakes to HYDROLARE. 
T10
Cat-C
Submit weekly surface and sub-surface water temperature, date of freeze-up and date of break-up of lakes in GTN-L to HYDROLARE.
T11
Cat-B
Establish prototype GTN-GW and a Global Groundwater Monitoring Information System (GGMS) as a web-portal for all GTN-GW datasets; deliver readily available data and products to the information system. Who: IGRAC, in cooperation with TOPC. 
T12
Cat-C
Archive and disseminate information related to irrigation and water resources through the FAO AQUASTAT database and other means; assure adequate quality control for all products. 
T13
Cat-A
Develop a record of validated globally-gridded near-surface soil moisture from satellites.Terrestrial - Soil moisture
T14
Cat-B
Develop Global Terrestrial Network for Soil Moisture (GTN-SM).Terrestrial - Soil moisture
T15
Cat-C
Strengthen and maintain existing snow-cover and snowfall observing sites; ensure that sites exchange snow data internationally; establish global monitoring of that data on the GTS; and recover historical data. 
T16
Cat-C
Obtain integrated analyses of snow cover over both hemispheres.Terrestrial - Snow cover
T17
Cat-B
Maintain current glacier observing sites and add additional sites and infrastructure in data-sparse regions, including South America, Africa, the Himalayas, and New Zealand; attribute quality levels to long- term mass balance measurements; complete satellite-based glacier inventories in key areas. 
T18
Cat-B
Ensure continuity of in situ ice sheet measurements and fill critical measurement gaps. 
T19
Cat-C
Research into ice sheet model improvement to assess future sea level rise. 
T20
Cat-B
Ensure continuity of laser, altimetry, and gravity satellite missions adequate to monitor ice masses over decadal timeframes.Terrestrial - Ice sheets
T21
Cat-C
Refine and implement international observing standards and practices for permafrost and combine with environmental variable measurements; establish national data centres. 
T22
Cat-C
Ensure continuity of the existing GTN-P borehole and active layer networks, upgrade existing sites, and build “reference sites.” 
T23
Cat-E
Implement operational mapping of seasonal soil freeze/thaw through an international initiative for monitoring seasonally-frozen ground in non-permafrost regions.Terrestrial - Land-surface temperature (LST)
T24
Cat-B
Obtain, archive and make available in situ calibration/validation measurements and collocated albedo products from all space agencies generating such products; promote benchmarking activities to assess the quality and reliability of albedo products.Terrestrial - Albedo
T25
Cat-B
Implement globally coordinated and linked data processing to retrieve land surface albedo from a range of sensors on a daily and global basis using both archived and current Earth Observation systems. Who: Space agencies, through the CGMS and WMO Space Programme.Terrestrial - Albedo
T26
Cat-B
Produce reliable accepted methods for land-cover map accuracy assessment. Who: CEOS WGCV, in collaboration with GOFC-GOLD and GLCN. 
T27
Cat-C
Generate annual products documenting global land-cover characteristics and dynamics at resolutions between 250 m and 1 km, according to internationally-agreed standards and accompanied by statistical descriptions of their accuracy.Terrestrial - Land cover
T28
Cat-C
Generate maps documenting global land cover based on continuous 10-30 m land surface imagery every 5 years, according to internationally-agreed standards and accompanied by statistical descriptions of their accuracy.Terrestrial - Land cover
T29
Cat-C
Establish a calibration/validation network of in situ reference sites for FAPAR and LAI and conduct systematic, comprehensive evaluation campaigns to understand and resolve differences between the products and increase their accuracy.Terrestrial - Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR)
Terrestrial - Leaf area index (LAI)
T29
Cat-C
Establish a calibration/validation network of in situ reference sites for FAPAR and LAI and conduct systematic, comprehensive evaluation campaigns to understand and resolve differences between the products and increase their accuracy.Terrestrial - Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR)
Terrestrial - Leaf area index (LAI)
T30
Cat-C
Evaluate the various LAI satellite products and benchmark them against in situ measurements to arrive at an agreed operational product.Terrestrial - Leaf area index (LAI)
T31
Cat-A
Operationalize the generation of FAPAR and LAI products as gridded global products at spatial resolution of 2 km or better over time periods as long as possible.Terrestrial - Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR)
Terrestrial - Leaf area index (LAI)
T31
Cat-A
Operationalize the generation of FAPAR and LAI products as gridded global products at spatial resolution of 2 km or better over time periods as long as possible.Terrestrial - Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR)
Terrestrial - Leaf area index (LAI)
T32
Cat-B
Develop demonstration datasets of above ground biomass across all biomes.Terrestrial - Above-ground biomass
T33
Cat-B
Develop a global database of soil carbon measurements and techniques for extrapolation to global gridded products of soil carbon. 
T34
Cat-B
Develop globally gridded estimates of terrestrial carbon flux from in situ observations and satellite products and assimilation/inversions models.
T35
Cat-D
Reanalyse the historical fire disturbance satellite data (1982 to present).Terrestrial - Fire disturbance
T36
Cat-A
Continue generation of consistent burnt area, active fire, and FRP products from low orbit satellites, including version intercomparisons to allow un-biased, long-term record development.Terrestrial - Fire disturbance
T37
Cat-B
Develop and apply validation protocol to fire disturbance data. Who: Space agencies and research organizations.Terrestrial - Fire disturbance
T38
Cat-B
Make gridded burnt area, active fire, and FRP products available through links from a single International Data Portal. 
T39
Cat-C
Develop set of active fire and FRP products from the global suite of operational geostationary satellites.Terrestrial - Fire disturbance
T40
Cat-E
Revision of TEMS with improved focus on the monitoring of terrestrial ECVs. 
C1
Cat-A
Participating international and intergovernmental organizations are invited to review and update their plans in light of this document in order to ensure they better serve the needs of the UNFCCC. 
C2
Cat-D
Designate national coordinators and/or committees, achieve national coordination, and produce national plans for contributions to the global observing system for climate in the context of this Plan. 
C3
Cat-D
Review the projects contained in RAPs for consistency with this Plan and update and revise the RAPs as necessary. 
C4
Cat-C
Report to the UNFCCC on systematic climate observations using current guidelines. Who: Parties with the UNFCCC. 
C5
Cat-C
Ensure an orderly process for sustained operation of research-based networks and systems for ECVs. Who: All organizations operating networks contributing to GCOS. 
C6
Cat-C
Ensure all climate observing activities adhere to the GCMPs. 
C7
Cat-C
Support the implementation of the global observing system for climate in developing countries and countries with economies in transition through membership in the GCOS Cooperation Mechanism and contributions to the GCOS Cooperation Fund. 
C8
Cat-B
Ensure continuity and over-lap of key satellite sensors; recording and archiving of all satellite metadata; maintaining appropriate data formats for all archived data; providing data service systems that ensure accessibility; undertaking reprocessing of all data relevant to climate for inclusion in integrated climate analyses and reanalyses, undertaking sustained generation of satellite-based ECV products.
C9
Cat-C
Achieve adoption of the GCOS dataset and product guidelines; critical comparison of datasets/products and advice on product generation for all ECVs by the climate community. 
C10
Cat-B
Prepare the atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial and cryospheric datasets and metadata, including historic data records, for climate analyses and reanalyses. 
C11
Cat-B
Establish sustainable systems for the routine and regular analysis of the ECVs, as appropriate and feasible, including measures of uncertainty. 
C12
Cat-A
Establish a sustained capacity for global climate reanalysis and ensure coordination and collaboration among reanalysis centres. 
C13
Cat-C
Collect, digitize and analyse the historical atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial data records from the beginning of instrumental observations in a region and submit to International Data Centres. 
C14
Cat-C
Improving data holdings in International Data Centres (IDCs). 
C15
Cat-B
Undertake research initiatives to acquire high-resolution proxy climate data by extending spatial coverage into new regions, extending temporal coverage back in time and exploiting new sources. 
C16
Cat-B
Improve synthesis of proxy climate and proxy environmental data on multi-decadal to millennial time scales, including better chronologies for existing records, particularly from the Tropics, Asia, the Southern Hemisphere and the Southern Ocean. 
C17
Cat-B
Preserve proxy climate and proxy environmental data (both the original measurements as well as the final reconstructions) in archival databases. 
C18
Cat-D
Apply standards and procedures for metadata and its storage and exchange. 
C19
Cat-C
Ensure national data centres are supported to enable timely, efficient and quality-controlled flow of all ECV data to International Data Centres (other than the very large satellite datasets that are usually managed by the responsible space agency). Ensure timely flow of feedback from monitoring centres to observing network operators.  
C20
Cat-C
Ensure that data policies facilitate the exchange and archiving of all ECV data. 
C21
Cat-C
Implement modern distributed data services, drawing on the experiences of the WIS as it develops, with emphasis on building capacity in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, both to enable these countries to benefit from the large volumes of data available world-wide and to enable these countries to more readily provide their data to the rest of the world.
C22
Cat-E
Develop and publish guidelines for undertaking observational studies in support of impact assessments and to ensure that data policies facilitate the exchange and archiving of all impact-relevant observational data. 
C23
Cat-D
Encourage recognition by scientific funding bodies of the need to consider guidelines for the conduct of observational impact studies, and encourage the definition of new impact-related ECVs. 
**GCOS-195 Status Categories: Category A: Action completed, perhaps exceeding reasonable expectations. Very good progress on ongoing tasks. Category B: Action largely completed according to expectation. Good progress on ongoing tasks. Category C: Moderate progress overall, although progress may be good for some part of the action. Category D: Limited progress overall, although progress may be moderate or good for some part of the action. Category E: Very little or no progress, or deterioration rather than progress.
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