THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
GLOBAL CLIMATE OBSERVING SYSTEM
ESSENTIAL CLIMATE VARIABLE - Precursor species
DomainAtmosphericDescriptionThe importance of observing relatively short-lived gaseous “precursor species” that affect the distributions of ozone and aerosols through chemical interactions was stated in IP-10. Species include nitrogen and sulphur dioxide (NO2 and SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde (HCHO). Surface atmospheric concentrations of NO2 and SO2 may reach levels that are directly harmful to health and lead to detrimental environmental impacts through acid rain, although emission controls have lowered concentrations over time in many regions. Observations of these species still remain important for air-quality monitoring and forecasting as well as climate. This includes use for assessing emission inventories and modelling, and for determining the injection and subsequent transport of SO2 from volcanic eruptions and CO from fires. [GCOS-195 4.7.6]
Sub-domainComposition
Full NamePrecursor species
Satellite Signficant ContributionYes
GCOS Actions
Action
Status*
DescriptionWhoTime FramePerformance IndicatorCost Implications
A26
Cat-D
Establish long-term limb-scanning satellite measurement of profiles of water vapour, ozone and other important species from the UT/LS up to 50 km.Space agencies, in conjunction with WMO GAW.Ongoing, with urgency in initial planning to minimize data gap.Continuity of UT/LS and upper stratospheric data records.100-300M US$ (including mission costs) (Mainly by Annex-I Parties).
A27
Cat-B
Establish a network of ground stations (MAXDOAS, lidar, FTIR) capable of validating satellite remote sensing of the troposphere.Space agencies, working with existing networks and environmental protection agencies.UrgentAvailability of comprehensive validation reports and near real-time monitoring based on the data from the network.10-30M US$ (30% in non-Annex-I Parties).
A34
Cat-B
Ensure continuity of products based on space-based measurement of the precursors (NO2, SO2, HCHO and CO in particular) of ozone and aerosols and derive consistent emission databases, seeking to improve temporal and spatial resolution.Space agencies, in collaboration with national environmental agencies and meteorological services.Requirement has to be taken into account now in mission planning, to avoid a gap in the 2020Availability of the necessary measurements, appropriate plans for future missions, and derived emission data bases.10-30M US$ (10% in non-Annex-I Parties).
*GCOS-195 Status Categories: Category A: Action completed, perhaps exceeding reasonable expectations. Very good progress on ongoing tasks. Category B: Action largely completed according to expectation. Good progress on ongoing tasks. Category C: Moderate progress overall, although progress may be good for some part of the action. Category D: Limited progress overall, although progress may be moderate or good for some part of the action. Category E: Very little or no progress, or deterioration rather than progress.
GCOS Products
ProductNameVariable/
Parameter
Related Measurements/
Instruments
from CEOS DB
A.11.1Retrievals of precursors for Aerosols and Ozone such as NO2, SO2, HCHO and CONO2 tropospheric column
SO2, HCHO tropospheric columns
CO tropospheric column
CO tropospheric profile
Atmospheric Chemistry - CO (column/profile)
Atmospheric Chemistry - NO2 (column/profile)
Atmospheric Chemistry - SO2 (column/profile)
CEOS Response[A26 (A.9.3, A.5.2, A.8.1)]

2015 Update: The Canadian Space Agency approved the continuation of the SCISAT mission through the end of 2015. The atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE) Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is unique in its ability to make measurements of upper atmosphere chemistry in the trace gases responsible for ozone depletion. A complete review of this experiment can be found at the following website http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca/index.html

Limb Sounding Mission Gap

Participants in the CEOS Atmospheric Chemistry Virtual Constellation meeting of 2014 recognize the significance of the looming gap in limb sounding data. Following the demise of the currently operating but aging instruments:
  • MLS on Aura (microwave emission),
  • SMR (microwave emission) on Odin,
  • OSIRIS (limb scatter UV-Vis-NIR) on Odin,
  • ACE-FTS (solar occultation IR) on SCISAT, and
  • ACE-MAESTRO (solar occultation UV-Vis-NIR) on SCISAT,
the only limb sounding instruments will be:
  • OMPS Limb Profiler on Suomi-NPP (limb scatter UV-Vis-NIR),
  • SAGE-III/ISS (solar occultation & limb scatter UV-Vis-NIR, planned for 2016),
  • OMPS Limb Profiler on JPSS-2 (limb scatter UV-Vis-NIR, planned for ~2021).
Specific Deliverable #2
Maximize use of existing sensors and develop a collaborative framework to advocate and facilitate near-term calibration/validation activities and other coordinated science team planning for near-term space-based missions with limb sounding capability (e.g., to include, but not limited to, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III-ISS and Sentinel 5-Precursor) to maximize scientific output.


[A27 (A.11.1)]

2015 Update: ESA is extending its R&D activities for DOAS and Max-DOAS in cooperation with NDACC and CEOS WGCV subgroup Atmospheric Composition. Updated information on in situ networks can be found at the global atmospheric watch website: http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/gaw_home_en.html.


[A34 (A.11.1)]

2015 Update: The Canadian Space Agency approved the continuation of the SCISAT mission through the end of 2015. The atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE) Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is unique in its ability to make measurements of upper atmosphere chemistry in the trace gases responsible for ozone depletion. A complete review of this experiment can be found at the following website http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca/index.html

Limb Sounding Mission Gap

Participants in the CEOS Atmospheric Chemistry Virtual Constellation meeting of 2014 recognize the significance of the looming gap in limb sounding data. Following the demise of the currently operating but aging instruments:
  • MLS on Aura (microwave emission),
  • SMR (microwave emission) on Odin,
  • OSIRIS (limb scatter UV-Vis-NIR) on Odin,
  • ACE-FTS (solar occultation IR) on SCISAT, and
  • ACE-MAESTRO (solar occultation UV-Vis-NIR) on SCISAT,
the only limb sounding instruments will be:
  • OMPS Limb Profiler on Suomi-NPP (limb scatter UV-Vis-NIR),
  • SAGE-III/ISS (solar occultation & limb scatter UV-Vis-NIR, planned for 2016),
  • OMPS Limb Profiler on JPSS-2 (limb scatter UV-Vis-NIR, planned for ~2021).
Specific Deliverable #2
Maximize use of existing sensors and develop a collaborative framework to advocate and facilitate near-term calibration/validation activities and other coordinated science team planning for near-term space-based missions with limb sounding capability (e.g., to include, but not limited to, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III-ISS and Sentinel 5-Precursor) to maximize scientific output. ... more ...

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