THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
CEOS EO HANDBOOK – MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
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Total electron content (TEC)


Measurement Definition*: Number of electrons in between two points. Observed under more viewing angles so as to generate profiles by tomography - Physical unit: [ electrons/m2 ]; practical unit: TECU = 1016 electrons/m2 - Accuracy unit: [ % ].
InstrumentStatus/
Accuracy
Instrument DescriptionMeasurement TechnologyTimeline
ES
Electron Spectrometer
Operational
Space Physics experiment for meausring speed and direction of electrons coming from the sun.n/a
m-NLP
multi-Needle Langmuir Probe
Operational
m-NLP measures the plasma around the Earth at a higher resolution than other Langmuir probe instruments that have been flown in space.n/a
RF Beacon
Radio Frequency Beacon
Operational
Transmitter that enables ground‐based measurement of ionospheric scintillation and ionospheric total electron content (TEC). Critical to understanding the impacts of space weather on satellite communication systems and GPS.n/a
SEM
Space Environment Monitor
Operational
Measures space environment parameters to support space craft operations.n/a
SEM (GOES)
Space Environment Monitor
Operational
Used for equipment failure analysis, solar flux measurement, solar storm warning, and magnetic and electric field measurement at satellite.n/a
SEM (POES)
Space Environment Monitor
Operational
Used for equipment failure analysis, solar flux measurement, solar storm warning, and magnetic and electric field measurement at satellite.n/a
SSI/ES-3
Special Sensor Ionospheric Plasma Drift/Scintillation Meter
Operational
Measurement of the ambient electron density and temperatures, the ambient ion density, and ion temperature and molecular weight.n/a
SWS/SEM/HEPD
Space Weather Suite / Space Environment Monitor/ High Energy Particle Detector
Operational
Energetic particle spectrometer: Spectrometer for electrons (0.25-2.0 MeV), protons (6.4-38 MeV) and alpha-particles (15-60 MeV)n/a
SWS/SEM/IMS 
Space Weather Suite / Space Environment Monitor / Ionosphere Measurement Sensor
Operational
To measure ionospheric electron temperature and density, and platform charge and dose. Specially arranged Langmuir Probe for electron temperature (0-1 eV) and density in the 10- 10^6 e/cm3 rangen/a
SXI
Solar X-ray Imager
Operational
Obtains data on structure of solar corona. Full disk imagery also provides warnings of geomagnetic storms, solar flares, and information on active regions of sun and filaments.n/a
Liulin-AR
256 channels Spectrometer
Approved
Deposited energy from primary and secondary particles - Radiation environmentn/a
* Description adapted from WMO.
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