THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
CEOS EO HANDBOOK – MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
Measurements > Atmosphere >
Liquid water and precipitation rate >
Precipitation rate (liquid) at the surface


Measurement Definition*: Rate of precipitation reaching the ground - Physical unit: [ mm/h ] (if solid, mm of liquid water after melting) - Accuracy unit: [ mm/h ].
InstrumentStatus/
Accuracy
Instrument DescriptionMeasurement TechnologyTimeline
ABI
Advanced Baseline Imager
Operational
Detects clouds, cloud properties, water vapour, land and sea surface temperatures, dust, aerosols, volcanic ash, fires, total ozone, snow and ice cover, vegetation index.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
Advanced MI
Advanced Meteorological Imager
Operational
Continuous monitoring capability for the near real-time generation of high-resolution meteorological products and long-term change analysis of sea surface temperature and cloud coverage.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
AHI
Advanced Himawari Imager
Operational
Measures cloud cover, cloud motion, cloud height, cloud properties, water vapour, rainfalll, sea surface temperatures and Earth radiation, dust, aerosols, volcanic ash, fires, snow and ice cover.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
AMSR-2
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer -2
Operational
+/-48 %
Measurements of water vapour, cloud liquid water, precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, soil moisture.n/a
AMSU-A
Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A
Operational
All-weather night-day temperature sounding to an altitude of 45 km.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
AMSU-A
Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A
Operational
All-weather night-day temperature sounding to an altitude of 45 km. AMSU-A on Aqua is still partially operational, with 9 of the 15 channels working and collecting data.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
ATMS
Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder
Operational
Collects microwave radiance data that when combined with the CrIS data will permit calculation of atmospheric temperature and water vapour profiles.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
AVHRR/3
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/3
Operational
Measurements of land and sea surface temperature, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, soil moisture and vegetation indices. Data also used for volcanic eruption monitoring.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
CPR (CloudSat)
Cloud Profiling Radar
Operational
+/-0.3 -
Primary goal to provide data needed to evaluate and improve the way clouds are represented in global climate models. Measures vertical profile of clouds.Cloud and precipitation radar
DPR
Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar
Operational
Measures precipitation rate classified by rain and snow, in latitudes up to 65 degrees.Cloud and precipitation radar
GMI
GPM Microwave Imager
Operational
Measures rainfall rates over oceans and land, combined rainfall structure and surface rainfall rates with associated latent heating. Used to produce three hour, daily, and monthly total rainfall maps over oceans and land.n/a
Imager
Imager
Operational
Measures cloud cover, atmospheric radiance, winds, atmospheric stability, rainfall estimates. Used to provide severe storm warnings/ monitoring day and night (type, amount, storm features).Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MADRAS
Microwave Analysis and Detection of Rain and Atmospheric Structures
Operational
To estimate rainfall, atmospheric water parameters and ocean surface winds in the equatorial belt.n/a
MHS
Microwave Humidity Sounder
Operational
Atmospheric humidity profiles, cloud cover, cloud liquid, water content, ice boundaries and precipitation data.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
MI
Meteorological Imager
Operational
Continuous monitoring capability for the near real-time generation of high-resolution meteorological products and long-term change analysis of sea surface temperature and cloud coverage.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MSU-GS
Multispectral scanning imager-radiometer
Operational
Measurements of cloud cover, cloud top height, precipitation, cloud motion, albedo, vegetation, convection, air mass analysis, tropopause monitoring, stability monitoring, total ozone and surface temperature, fire detection.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MSU-MR
Low-resolution multispectral scanning imager-radiometer
Operational
Parameters of clouds, snow, ice and land cover, vegetation, surface temperature, fire detection.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MTVZA-GY
Scanning microwave imager-sounder
Operational
Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, precipitation, sea-level wind speed, snow/ice coverage.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
MWRI
Micro-Wave Radiation Imager
Operational
All weather observations of precipitation, cloud features, vegetation, soil moisture sea ice, etc.n/a
SEVIRI
Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager
Operational
Measurements of cloud cover, cloud top height, precipitation, cloud motion, vegetation, radiation fluxes, convection, air mass analysis, cirrus cloud discrimination, tropopause monitoring, stability monitoring, total ozone and sea surface temperature.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
Sounder
Sounder
Operational
Atmospheric soundings and data on atmospheric stability and thermal gradient winds.n/a
SSM/I
Special Sensor Microwave Imager
Operational
Measures atmospheric, ocean and terrain microwave brightness temperatures to provide: sea surface winds, rain rates, cloud water, precipitation, soil moisture, ice edge, ice age.n/a
SSM/IS
Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder
Operational
Measures thermal microwave radiation. Global measurements of air temp profile, humidity profile, ocean surface winds, rain overland/ocean, ice concentration/age, ice/snow edge, water vapour/clouds over ocean, snow water content, land surface temperature.n/a
SSM/T-2
Special Sensor Microwave Water Vapor Sounder
Operational
Water vapour profiler.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
VISSR-2
Stretched Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer-2
Operational
Meteorological.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
CPR (EarthCARE)
Cloud Profiling Radar (EarthCARE)
Being developed
Measurement of cloud properties, light precipitation, vertical motion.Cloud and precipitation radar
FCI
Flexible Combined Imager
Being developed
Measurements of cloud cover, cloud top height, precipitation, cloud motion, vegetation, radiation fluxes, convection, air mass analysis, cirrus cloud discrimination, tropopause monitoring, stability monitoring, total ozone and sea surface temperature.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
ICI
Ice Cloud Imager
Being developed
Measures cloud ice content, snowfall detection, precipitation content, snowfall rate near surface and water vapour profilesn/a
METimage
Multi Spectral Imager
Being developed
Operational multi spectral imager for meteorological EPS-SG VIS/IR Imaging Mission (VII): imagery data for global and regional NWP, NWC, and climate monitoringMulti-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MWI
Microwave Imager
Being developed
Measure cloud liquid water, ice cloud content, precipitation, total column water vapour, snow parameters, sea ice parametersn/a
MWS
Microwave Sounder
Being developed
All-weather night-day temperature soundingAbsorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
TROPICS
Microwave Spectrometer (TROPICS)
Being developed
+/-0.25
Constellation to provide temperature/moisture sounding and cloud/precipitation imaging with rapid update.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
MSU-GS/VE
Multispectral scanning imager-radiometer
Approved
Operational metrology, hydrology, climate monitoring and environmental monitoringMulti-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
MVIRS
Moderate Resolution Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroradiometer
Approved
Measures surface temperature and cloud and ice cover. Used for snow and flood monitoring and surface temperature.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
Advanced MSU-MR
Advanced Multispectral scanning imager-radiometer
Proposed
Parameters of clouds, snow, ice and land cover, vegetation, surface temperature, fire detection.Multi-purpose imaging Vis/IR radiometer
AMSR-3
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer -3
Proposed
+/-48 %
Measurements of water vapour, cloud liquid water, precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover, soil moisture. n/a
Cloud Radar
Cloud radar (ACE)
Proposed
Radar measurement for cloud droplets and precipitation.Cloud and precipitation radar
GeoSTAR
MW Array Spectrometer (PATH)
Proposed
High frequency, all-weather temperature and humidity soundings for weather forecasting and SST.n/a
MTVZA-GY-MP
Advanced Scanning microwave imager-sounder
Proposed
Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, precipitation, sea-level wind speed, snow/ice coverage.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
PR
Precipitation Radar
Proposed
Precipitation radar.Cloud and precipitation radar
AMSR-E
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS
No longer operational
+/-10 %
Measurements of water vapour, cloud liquid water, precipitation, winds, sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration, snow cover and soil moisture. Instrument stopped functioning 4th October 2011.n/a
* Description adapted from WMO.
Copyright CEOS | About | Site Search | Report an Issue Researched and written by Symbios