THE CEOS DATABASE : Missions, Instruments and Measurements
CEOS EO HANDBOOK – MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
Measurements > Atmosphere >
Atmospheric Temperature Fields >
Atmospheric temperature (column/profile)


Measurement Definition*: Vertical profile of the atmospheric temperature - Requested from surface to TOA (layers: LT, HT, LS, HS&M) - Physical unit: [ K ] - Accuracy unit: [ K ].

Thematic Links
InstrumentStatus/
Accuracy
Instrument DescriptionMeasurement TechnologyTimeline
ACE-FTS
Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Operational
Measure and understand the chemical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, especially at high altitudes.Limb-scanning IR spectrometer
Advanced MI
Advanced Meteorological Imager
Operational
Continuous monitoring capability for the near real-time generation of high-resolution meteorological products and long-term change analysis of sea surface temperature and cloud coverage.n/a
AIRS
Atmospheric Infra-red Sounder
Operational
High spectral resolution measurement of temperature and humidity profiles in the atmosphere. Long-wave Earth surface emissivity. Cloud diagnostics. Trace gas profiles. Surface temperatures.Medium-resolution IR spectrometer
AMSU-A
Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A
Operational
All-weather night-day temperature sounding to an altitude of 45 km.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
AMSU-A
Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A
Operational
All-weather night-day temperature sounding to an altitude of 45 km. AMSU-A on Aqua is still partially operational, with 9 of the 15 channels working and collecting data.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
ASI
Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer
Operational
Atmospheric sounding for weather forecasting.n/a
ATMS
Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder
Operational
Collects microwave radiance data that when combined with the CrIS data will permit calculation of atmospheric temperature and water vapour profiles.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
CHRIS
Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
Operational
Supports a range of land, ocean and atmospheric applications, including agricultural science, forestry, environmental science, atmospheric science and oceanography.n/a
CrIS
Cross-track Infrared Sounder
Operational
Daily measurements of vertical atmospheric distribution of temperature, moisture, and pressure. MWIR non-operational on Suomi NPP effective 12 July 2021.Medium-resolution IR spectrometer
GIIRS
Geostationary Interferometric Infrared Sounder
Operational
Measurements of three dimensional atmospheric structure. Large-area, continuous, fast, and accurate vertical air soundings of temperature and humidity. Subsequent units have slightly different specifications.n/a
GNOS
GNSS Radio Occultation Sounder
Operational
Atmospheric sounding for weather forecasting.GNSS radio-occultation receiver
GNSS POD Receiver
GNSS POD Receiver
Operational
Precision orbit determination.n/a
GNSS-RO Receiver
GNSS Radio Occultation Receiver
Operational
Measurement of bending angles of GNSS satellite signals occulted by Earth's atmosphere for retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles.GNSS radio-occultation receiver
GPSRO (Terra-SAR)
GPS Radio Occultation System
Operational
Measurements of atmospheric temperature, pressure and water vapour content.GNSS radio-occultation receiver
GRAS
GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding
Operational
GNSS receiver for atmospheric temperature and humidity profile sounding.GNSS radio-occultation receiver
HIRAS
Hyperspectral Infrared Atmospheric Sounder
Operational
 n/a
HIRS/4
High Resolution Infra-red Sounder/4
Operational
Atmospheric temperature profiles and data on cloud parameters, humidity soundings, water vapour, total ozone content, and surface temperatures. Same as HIRS/3, with 10 km IFOV.n/a
IASI
Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer
Operational
Measures tropospheric moisture and temperature, column integrated contents of ozone, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other minor gases which affect tropospheric chemistry. Also measures sea surface and land temperature.Medium-resolution IR spectrometer
IKFS-2
IR-Fourier spectrometer
Operational
Atmospheric temperature/humidity profiles, data on cloud parameters, water vapour & ozone column amounts, surface temperature.n/a
IRAS
InfraRed Atmospheric Sounder
Operational
Atmospheric sounding for weather forecasting.n/a
MLS (EOS-Aura)
Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS-Aura)
Operational
Measures lower stratospheric temperature and concentration of H2O, O3, ClO, HCl, OH, HNO3, N2O and SO2.n/a
MODIS
MODerate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
Operational
Data on biological and physical processes on the surface of the Earth and in the lower atmosphere, and on global dynamics. Surface temperatures of land and ocean, chlorophyll fluorescence, land cover measurements, cloud cover (day and night).n/a
MTVZA-GY
Scanning microwave imager-sounder
Operational
Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, precipitation, sea-level wind speed, snow/ice coverage.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
MWHS-2
Improved MicroWave Humidity Sounder
Operational
Meteorological applications.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
MWRI
Micro-Wave Radiation Imager
Operational
All weather observations of precipitation, cloud features, vegetation, soil moisture sea ice, etc.n/a
MWTS-1
Micro-Wave Temperature Sounder
Operational
Temperature sounding in nearly all weather conditions.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
MWTS-2
Micro-Wave Temperature Sounder-2
Operational
Atmospheric sounding measurements.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
OSIRIS
Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imaging System
Operational
Detects aerosol layers and abundance of species such as O3, NO2, OClO, BrO and NO. Consists of spectrograph and IR imager.n/a
ROSA
Radio Occultation Sounder for the Atmosphere
Operational
Climate change studies. High-vertical resolution temperature-humidity sounding for NWP. Space weather.GNSS radio-occultation receiver
SAGE-III
Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment
Operational
Limb-viewing measurements of aerosol, O3, H20, NO2, OClO, NO3, temperature and pressure in the stratosphere, upper troposphere, and mesosphere using solar occultation, lunar occultation and limb scatter measurement techniques.n/a
SMR
Submillimetre Radiometer
Operational
Measures global distributions of ozone and species of importance for ozone chemistry ClO, HNO3, H2O, N2O, (HO2, H2O2). Measures temperature in the height range 15 - 100 km.n/a
Sounder
Sounder
Operational
Atmospheric soundings and data on atmospheric stability and thermal gradient winds.n/a
Sounder (INSAT)
IR Sounder
Operational
Atmospheric soundings, atmospheric stability, thermal gradient winds.n/a
SSM/IS
Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder
Operational
Measures thermal microwave radiation. Global measurements of air temp profile, humidity profile, ocean surface winds, rain overland/ocean, ice concentration/age, ice/snow edge, water vapour/clouds over ocean, snow water content, land surface temperature.n/a
SSM/T-1
Special Sensor Microwave Temperature Sounder
Operational
Measures Earth's surface and atmospheric emission in the 50 - 60 GHz oxygen band.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
TGRS
TriG (Tri-GNSS) GNSS Radio-occultation System
Operational
TGRS is the radio occultation receiver, which will receive signals from GPS, Galileo, and Glonass.GNSS radio-occultation receiver
VISSR-2
Stretched Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer-2
Operational
Meteorological.n/a
IASI-NG
Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer - New Generation
Being developed
Measures profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity, ozone, carbon monoxide, columns of methane, nitrous oxide, and other minor gases, and sea, ice, and land surface temperature and emissivity.Medium-resolution IR spectrometer
IRS
Infra-Red Sounder
Being developed
Measurements of vertically resolved clear sky atmospheric motion vectors, temperature and water vapour profiles.Medium-resolution IR spectrometer
METimage
Multi Spectral Imager
Being developed
Operational multi spectral imager for meteorological EPS-SG VIS/IR Imaging Mission (VII): imagery data for global and regional NWP, NWC, and climate monitoringn/a
MWR (AWS)
Arctic Weather Satellite Microwave Radiometer
Being developed
Cross-track scanning microwave radiometer. Provides measurements of atmospheric humidity and temperature.n/a
MWS
Microwave Sounder
Being developed
All-weather night-day temperature soundingAbsorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
RO
RO
Being developed
GNSS receiver for atmospheric temperature and humidity profile sounding.GNSS radio-occultation receiver
TROPICS
Microwave Spectrometer (TROPICS)
Being developed
+/-2
Constellation to provide temperature/moisture sounding and cloud/precipitation imaging with rapid update.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
Advanced Radiomet
Advanced Radio-occultation receiver
Proposed
Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles with high vertical resolution.GNSS radio-occultation receiver
IKFS-3
Advanced Fourier spectrometer
Proposed
Atmospheric temperature/humidity profiles, data on cloud parameters, water vapour & ozone column amounts, surface temperature.n/a
MATHS
Millimeter wave Atmosphere Temperature and Humidity Sounder
Proposed
Integrated water vapour, cloud liquid water and precipitation for temperature soundingn/a
MTVZA-GY-MP
Advanced Scanning microwave imager-sounder
Proposed
Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, precipitation, sea-level wind speed, snow/ice coverage.Absorption-band MW radiometer/spectrometer
HiRDLS
High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder
No longer operational
Measures atmospheric temperature, concentrations of ozone, water vapour, methane, NOx, N2O, CFCs and other minor species, aerosol concentration, location of polar stratospheric clouds and cloud tops. Currently not collecting data on Aqua.Limb-scanning IR spectrometer
TES
Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer
No longer operational
3D profiles on a global scale of all infra-red active species from surface to lower stratosphere. Measures greenhouse gas concentrations, tropospheric ozone, acid rain precursors, gas exchange leading to stratospheric ozone depletion.n/a
* Description adapted from WMO.
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